History Proves Kosovo Was Never Part of Serbia

If China is Japan, Kosovo is Serbia!

Henry Kissinger : “The Albanians did not fight for autonomy but for independence and surely not to remain under Yugoslav sovereignty.”

I know that China has never been a part of Japan’s territory. It is likewise with Kosovo which has never been a part of Serbia’s territory, but only as its colony (1912-1999). This is the historical truth, not that what Serbia’s government, Orthodox Church and Scientific Academy say that “Kosovo is heart and cradle of Serbia by centuries.”

This is an entirely false history of Serbia about Albanian Kosovo. Chinese Ambassador in Belgrade, Li Manchang doesn’t know the history of Kosovo, respectively of Albania, otherwise he wouldn’t say in Jagodina (a small city near the capital of Serbia) “Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia.”

As if China’s Ambassador Li Manchang would have known the historical truth that Kosovo is a part of Ethnic Albania, he’ll never declare such historical, political and diplomatic stupidity allegedly saying that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia.”

Maybe Chinese Ambassador Li Manchang in Belgrade knows the real history of Albanian Kosovo, but he was forced to say the false statement for the sake of his country. China along with Russia supports colonial Serbia due to their complementary interests against America and its Western European allies that have recognized the Republic of Kosovo(February 17, 2008). This is one of the main reasons why Russia and China have found common language for blocking independence of Kosovo in the Security Council in the United Nations.

Here’s how the Chinese Ambassador Li Manching in Belgrade has justified his statement about Albanian Kosovo: “China’s official position is that the issue of Kosovo-Metohija needs to be solved pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1244 which precisely states that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia and, in that sense, Serbia has our full support of China that has not recognised Kosovo.” (See : inserbia.info).

This is the wrong conclusion because of the fact that the United Nations Resolution 1244 about Kosovo, adopted by the Security Council on June 10, 1999 that states that Kosovo is an independent and sovereign state recognized by 109 member countries of the United Nations.

Also, this Resolution is in contrary to the International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo’s declaration of independence, adopted on July 22, 2010 in Hague stating that : “The adoption of the declaration of independence of the 17 February 2008 did not violate general international law because international law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence'” nor did the adoption of the declaration of independence violate UN Security Council Resolution 1244, since this did not describe Kosovo’s final status, nor had the Security Council reserved for itself the decision on final status.

It does appear that China’s ambassador in Belgrade, Li Manchang doesn’t know the history of Kosovo. In fact, according to President of the Serbian Helsinki Committee in Belgrade, Dr. Sonja Biserko : “The entire Serbian history is one big lie, because among other things, Serbia has no real access to part of the history that is related to the Ottoman Empire. The lack of knowledge of the facts created the myth of Kosovo, the Serbian heroism and the heavenly realm. The entire Serbian history is one big lie.”

As a result of the colonialism, genocide and annexation committed by Serbia on Albanians in Kosovo as well as the other indigenous territories of ethnic Albania (1912-1999) which is separated into two parts in favor of the enlargement of Serbia’s territory – Great Serbia.

This was the main reason why Kosovo struggled through centuries to achieve full independence from Serbia. The indisputable historical facts prove that the origin of the conflict between Serbians and Albanians are not from the more recent era of Tito’s Yugoslavia(1943-1989) or from Slobodan Milosevic Yugoslavia (Serbia+ Montenegro,1989-1999), but is a struggle that has taken place over centuries.

Albanians have never stopped their struggle against Serbian colonial rule and genocide, and have always remained determined to regain their rights to the indigenous territories of ethnic Albania.

The right of self-determination and independence of Albanians in Kosovo is supported by the following arguments:

  • Firstly, Kosovo has been inhabited by Illyrians, who were the ancestors at present day Albanians; Albanians constitute over 90% of Kosovo’s inhabitants.
  • Secondly, in 1878, Kosovo was part of the ethnic Albania. In that year, as a counter-replay to anti-Albanian resolutions, adopted by the Congress of Berlin in 1878 the Albanian League of Prizren was founded, but then was destroyed by the military intervention of Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which led the Great Powers’ Congress of Berlin in 1878 to enable Serbia and Montenegro to grab Albanian lands and to commit genocide against Albanians for the second time. That was the Russian intervention in favor of the Serbia and Montenegro which destroyed peaceful coexistence in the Balkans.
  • Third, Kosovo was a legal part of Albania (November 28, 1912), but was invaded by Serbian military forces who committed genocide against its indigenous people.

The historical, juridical and political injustice created by the Great European Powers led to the separation of Kosovo from its motherland. Fourthly in 1918, Kosovo became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by force and genocide, but it was a flagrant act of colonialism, dividing Albanian territories, and giving rise to the Albanian right to the decolonization of Kosovo.

During 1918-1919 Kosovo’s struggle for independence was crushed through genocidal crimes committed for the fourth time by the Serbs against Albanians, including the “importation” of Serbian colonists in Kosovo, respectively in ethnic Albania. According to articles 20 and 22.4 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the severance of Kosovo from ethnic Albania is declared null and void and its independence from the colonizing power Serbia, is provisionally recognized.

In violation of the Covenant of the League of Nations, Kosovo was colonized by the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1941, and was officially declared and treated as a colony by Serbs. Serbia implanted colonists, expelled hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians, committed economic and mental persecution, terror, and liquidation. They committed pure and simple genocide. “Turkey was involved in that genocide operation by expelling over 300,000 Albanians from Kosovo to Istanbul, according to the Gentlemen Agreement with Yugoslavia in 1938.”

Kissinger: Kosovo’s Albanians have fought for Independence, not for Autonomy! Being that Kosovo has never legally been a part of Serbia, Albanian people would have never agreed with “conditional autonomy” under colonial rule of Serbia. This assessment proved and this conclusion of Henry Kissinger who wrote that : “The Albanians did not fight for autonomy but for independence and surely not to remain under Yugoslav sovereignty.”( Henry Kissinger (Does America need a foreign policy? New York, 2001, p.270).

This is the primary reason why Albanians should not give up what is rightfully their historical and legitimate right to Kosovo. Furthermore, the 8% Serbian minority in Kosovo has no legal right to call Kosovo a part of Serbia, since Serbia colonized and annexed Kosovo by genocide and military force. Serbian historian and professor at Belgrade University, Dubravka Stojanovic stated, “For Serbia the First Balkan War was the greatest historical moment, but for Albanians the same war was the biggest trauma because the Great Powers of Europe adopted their unjust resolution of dividing of Albania in two parts, and Kosovo annexed to Serbia.”(RSE, October22,2002).

As professor Dubravka Stojanovic has written: In 1912, Serbia, very fast, militarily entered and occupied territory of Kosovo, Novi Pazar and a part of Macedonia.” (THB1NL (3Februar, 2007 – 15:54). Professor Robert Jackson further supported these historical based facts expounded by Dubravka Stojanovic, stating, “Kosovo had long been part of the Ottoman Empire when it was conquered by Serbia in 1912. That right of conquest was confirmed by the League of Nations at the end of the First World War by the inclusion of Kosovo in the new state of Yugoslavia.” (Robert Jackson, The Global Covenant – Human Conduct in a World of States, Oxford University, New York, 2000, p.278.)

It is worth to stress the fact that, during the Second World War the status of Albanians in Kosovo was unchanged, even though Kosovo was set to be declared a sovereign entity: “In January 2, 1944 the meeting of the National Liberation Movement about Kosovo’s political status was held, which was known as the Bujan Conference. In this conference Bujan Resolution was adopted, which defined Kosovo as a sovereign entity and a part of Albania and expressed its aim to remain part of the Albanian state after the end of the Second World War. But the partisan army led by Tito crushed its indigenous people by committing all possible means of genocide against them.” (Noel Malcolm,Kosovo a Short History, New York, 1999, p.307-308).

In 1945, at the end of the war in Yugoslavia and in violation of the United Nations Charter,according to the Yugoslavia’s Federal Constitution of 1946, Yugoslavia annexed Kosovo and its indigenous Albanian people by force. This was an act against the will of the Albanian people of Kosovo, according to international law, this was an act of colonialism.

In 1989, after Slobodan Milosevic took power in SRFY, Kosovo was again illegally and by force annexed by the Republic of Serbia, in the same outlawed manner. As a consequence of these condemnable acts, Kosovo was declared independent on four occasions: (1) On July 2, 1990, in accordance with the United Nations Charter, and international law, Kosovo’s parliament adopted the Declaration of independence of Kosovo; (2) the Constitution on September 7,1990, known as Kacanik’s Constitution, declared Albanian Kosovo as an independent republic; (3) the Declaration of October 19, 1991 declared Kosovo as a sovereign independent republic on the basis of a referendum held from September 29- 30, 1991, in the presence of international observers. Eighty-seven percent voted, of which 99.87% voted in favor of independence from the SFRY.

In summary, Kosovo’s dissociation from Serbia is justified by the following reasons: (1) historically, Kosovo has never legally been a part of Serbian territory, but only became annexed to Serbia by genocide and colonial plunder;and (2) historically, culturally and linguistically, Kosovo belongs to the civilization of western Europe, as Albanians are ethnically the descendants of Illyrians and not at all descendants of Slaves or Muslims as Serbian quasi-history, politics and propaganda try to misinform the public by fabricating their history in order to hide their centennial colonial genocides committed on Albanians and ethnic Albania (1878-1999).

Contrary to the Serbian invented myth about the battle for Kosovo in 1389, which has been used to justify the right of Serbia to Kosovo, Noel Malcolm writes “Serbia does not have a continuous history on Kosovo. For several hundred years, Kosovo was not part of Serbia, because there was no Serbia to be part of: during most of the long Ottoman period, Serbia did not exist as an entity at all. Kosovo was annexed de facto by Serbia within living memory, in 1912; de jure it wasn’t annexed by the Serbian kingdom at all.” (Noel Malcolm, Kosovo a Short History, New York, 1999(Introduction, p.xxxiii).

Furthermore, although Serbs claim Kosovo as the “cradle” of their religion and culture, there is no true basis because “the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church was not founded in Kosovo; it merely moved thereafter its original foundation in central Serbia was burnt down. Nor does the Patriarchate have any continuous history as an institution in Kosovo… but in Rascia (Serbia), an area beyond Kosovo’s northwestern border, and most of the important early medieval Serbian monasteries and churches were built outside Kosovo itself.”

As Noel Malcolm also and Slovenian Prof. Dr. Anton Bebler comes to scientific conclusion that “In the history of the past centuries, Kosovo was never ethnically Slavic and Serbian at all. If only limit last two thousand years the political history of Kosovo, shows that the longest time one has ruled by Romans, Byzantines and Ottoman Turks. The first Serbian state was established in today’s Montenegro’s area: Dukla, Zahumle, Travunja, Poganja, while Raska(Serbia) is not created in the territory of Kosovo and, so, consequently not included Kosovo then and today. Marriage of the first Serbian King in 1077 was made in Zeta at the territory of the present Montenegro, not in Albanian Kosovo.”

On that day, Kosovo’s Parliament declared the independence of Kosovo, which was immediately recognized the next day by the United States of America and several nations of the European Union including the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany,Austria and other supporting countries etc. Up to now independent Kosovo have recognized 109 countries members of the United Nations.

Also, the International Court of Justice in The Hague on 22 July 2010 through its advisory opinion concluded that declared independence of Kosovo by Kosovo Assembly is in accordance with principles of international law.

However, despite these valid arguments, Serbia, The United Nations and five nations of the European Union (Greece, Spain, Cyprus, Romania and Slovakia) didn’t recognize the independent Kosovo yet. It was a historic day since it is the first time in history that Kosovo has gained independence and sovereignty in the Balkans. Indeed it has been a long awaited day for Albanians who have yearned for this freedom for 100 hundred years, since Serbia’s colonization and annexation of Kosovo, which lasted from 1912 to 1999.

According to international law, Kosovo has the right to be independent and recognized by the international community i.e. by the Security Council of the United Nations. However this didn’t happen yet due to the Russia’s veto in Security Council which blocked the adopting of the new resolution in recognizing independent Kosovo as a new member of the United Nations. Rather than do this, Russia has supported colonial Serbia as its historical and traditional Slav ally in the Balkans, although the colonialism is a criminal offense, punishable under international law and the Charter of the United Nations.


As noted above, historically and lawfully, Kosovo has never been Serbia’s legal property, but it was incorporated as an illegal and alienated territory within Serbia’s colonial sovereignty. Kosovo was fissured from the indigenous territory of the Ethnic Albania by force and genocide committed by Serbia, who has had the allied support of Russia and other European Great Powers represented in the London Conference of Ambassadors in 1913. Additionally, it’s worthy to note that when Serbia was recognized as an independent state in 1878 by the European Great Powers in Berlin’s Congress, Kosovo was not within its territorial and state sovereignty, but rather under Ottoman rule until 1912.

However, Serbia and its citizens know very well this truth de facto and de jure, but have chosen not to accept it as such, since Kosovo has always been in their colonial interests along with other territories of the Ethnic Albania, such as Presheva, Bujanoci and Medevegja.

In addition, Kosovo was a colonial, not minority “new issue” (arise from 1990 when SFRY was destroyed by Slobodan Milosevic’s genocide and militarist Serbia) as Serbian government and Serbian Orthodox Church still are trying to manipulate with it in the face of the international community.

Notwithstanding, thank to the United States and its western European allies (NATO) who have been rescued over two millions Albanian people from Serbia’s genocide, lastly, Kosovo got its independence (February 17, 2008). Therefore, there’s no more anyway to turn back the clock of the past bloody history of colonial Serbia , but it’s time for reconciliation, mutual cooperation and lasting peace between Serbia and independent Republic of Kosovo.

Mehdi Hyseni Ph.D.
Mehdi Hyseni is an Albanian Ph.D. in International Political Relations, residing in Boston.