Cold Dark Matter Theory May Not be Valid

Three leading-edge research groups in the field of galaxy formation have published their findings that most large galaxies have formed and developed without the involvement of galaxy mergers. This historic support for the top-down theory of galaxy formation provides an important missing piece to the universe’s cosmological puzzle and essentially proves that the Cold Dark Matter theory has no valid basis.

Avishai Dekel,et al, published a scientific paper recently, Michael J. Disney,et al, published a paper late last year and Jerome Drexler authored relevant books in 2006 and 2008.The most obvious immediate effect could be a paradigm shift away from the Cold Dark Matter theory of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).

The UC Santa Cruz (UCSC) central doctrine for Cold Dark Matter has been that small galaxies form first and larger galaxies are formed through mergers of smaller galaxies.

This is called hierarchal galaxy formation, a central principle of the UCSC Cold Dark Matter WIMP theory. Such a hierarchal galaxy merging procedure would probably lead to a complex galaxy formation process based upon a number of independent variables representing various parameters of the merging galaxies.

A Nature article, authored by Professor Michael J. Disney of UK’s Cardiff University and five associates, is entitled, “Galaxies appear simpler than expected.”

It turns out that through a statistical analysis of the radio and optical data from 200 galaxies, five of the six “independent” variables actually are dependent on some single unknown independent variable. The last sentence of the abstract makes a key statement, “Such a degree of organization [of galaxies] appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.”

More from Professor Disney’s abstract: “Here we report that a sample of galaxies that were first detected through their neutral hydrogen radio-frequency emission, and are thus free from optical selection effects shows five independent correlations among six independent observables, despite having a wide range of properties. This implies that the structure of these galaxies must be controlled by a single parameter, although we cannot identify this parameter from our data set. Such a degree of organization appears to be at odds with hierarchical galaxy formation, a central tenet of the cold dark matter model in cosmology.”

Professor Avishai Dekel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, with nine associates, comes to the same general conclusion as Disney via a different set of data and different arguments in a Nature article several months later. It is entitled, “Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation.” A news release from The Hebrew University begins as follows:

“New understanding of the origin of galaxies advanced by Hebrew U astrophysicists

A new theory as to how galaxies formed in the Universe billions of years ago has been formulated by Hebrew University of Jerusalem cosmologists. The theory takes issue with the prevailing view on how the galaxies came to exist.

The new theory, motivated by advanced astronomical observations and based on state-of-the-art computer simulations, maintains that the galaxies primarily formed as a result of intensive cosmic streams of cold gas (mostly hydrogen) and not, as the current theory contends, due primarily to galactic mergers. The researchers show that these mergers had only limited influence on the cosmological makeup of the universe as we know it.

The galaxies are the building blocks of the Universe… . Every galaxy is embedded in a spherical halo made of dark matter that cannot be seen but is detected through its massive gravitational attraction. The exact nature of this matter is still unknown.”

There are currently two schools of thought on galaxy formation. There is the old bottom-up theory, supported by the vast majority of the world’s universities, which states that small galaxies form first and larger galaxies are formed through mergers of the small galaxies.

The principal subject of this newswire article is the top-down theory of galaxy formation, that Drexler, Disney, and Dekel support, which generally states that galaxies form and grow via some source of hydrogen not involving galaxy mergers.

Drexler describes and explains his top-down theory of galaxy formation in two of his three books. His May 22, 2006 book entitled, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos: Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics,” covers this subject in Chapters 19, 21, 31, 36, 40 and 41. His March 1, 2008 book entitled, “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology: Discoveries in Dark Matter, Cosmic Web, Big Bang, Inflation, Cosmic Rays, Dark Energy, Accelerating Cosmos,” discusses the top-down theory of galaxy formation in Chapters 9 and 19. See also the instructional Web site at

Drexler’s well-proven relativistic-proton dark matter theory permits a more complete top-down theory of galaxy formation than that provided by others. Drexler’s May 2006 book’s definition of his top-down theory is “that long, large dark matter filaments form galaxy clusters where the dark matter filaments intersect/collide and then galaxies form from the remnants of these collisions.” Drexler’s March 2008 book’s definition of the top-down theory is the same except for the addition of the then new words “of the cosmic web” between the words “filaments” and “form.”

Thus in Drexler’s 2006 galaxy-formation theory the evolving star-forming galaxies are fed with streams of warm-hot protons directly from the relativistic-proton dark matter itself rather than from a posited separate source of protons or hydrogen. Note that this star-forming galaxy system has Occam razor simplicity.


Jerome Drexler, inventor of the LaserCard optical memory card, worked at Bell Labs, was a research professor in physics at NJIT, and chief scientist of LaserCard Corp. Drexler is the author of four books on his discovery of the nature of dark matter, dark energy and “dark matter cosmology” of the universe.