New Data: Dark Matter And Dark Energy

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New data from the Hubble space telescope shows that Dark Matter And Dark Energy and responsible for the expanding universe.

Where’s The Dark Matter?

So many of us never realize the universe contains invisible entities, generally described as Dark matter. This is a type of matter composing approximately 27% of the mass and energy in the observable universe. Black holes, neutron stars, and white/brown dwarfs are collectively known as Massive Compact Halo Objects, MACHOs. MACHOs usually don’t make up Dark Matter.

“Dark Matter” will not emit electromagnetic radiation, (e.g., light), and is invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Although dark matter cannot be observed, its existence is demonstrated by its gravitational effects. The first robust indications came from measurements of galaxy rotation curves.

bullet cluster 1E 0657-56.
Composite image showing the galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56, better known as bullet cluster. The image in background showing the visible spectrum of light stems from Magellan and Hubble Space Telescope images.
The pink overlay shows the x-ray emission (recorded by Chandra Telescope) of the colliding clusters, the blue one represents the mass distribution of the clusters calculated from gravitational lensing effects.
Full image is 7.5 arcmin wide, 5.4 arcmin high.
21 August 2006
Chandra X-Ray Observatory: 1E 0657-56
NASA/CXC/M. Weiss

Dark Matter Amounts

Cosmology indicates the total mass/energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. As a result, dark matter constitutes 84.5% of total mass, and dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95.1% of total mass/energy content.

Velocity dispersion of elliptical galaxies, generally indicate a high dark matter content. In 2005, astronomers claimed to have discovered a galaxy made almost entirely of dark matter, 50 million light years away in the Virgo Cluster, named VIRGOHI21. Scientists say it contains 1000x more dark matter than usual, and has a mass of 1/10 of the Milky Way. The Big Bang suggests dark galaxies should be very common, but only VIRGOHI21 has been detected.

Strong gravitational lensing shown by the Hubble Space Telescope in Abell 1689, indicates dark matter presence. Generally, dark matter outweighs visible matter by approximately 5 to 1.

One Galaxy Shows Dark Matter

Direct observational evidence comes from the Bullet Cluster. In most regions dark and visible matter are found together, due to gravitational attraction. In that cluster, the two matter types split apart, due to a past collision between two smaller clusters. All galaxies, stars and dark matter continue through with negligible collisions.

Multiple Dimensions And Gravity

Thinking about multidimensional theories, gravity is the only force with effects across all dimensions. This explains the relative weakness of gravity compared to the other forces of nature unable to travel intra-dimensionally. Potentially, dark matter exists in a “Hidden Valley” in other dimensions only.

In physics, three dimensions of space and one of time is the accepted norm. Most notably, super-string theory requires 10 space-time dimensions, and originates from an 11-dimensional theory called M-theory. No observational evidence is available to confirm these extra dimensions, but hidden by some physical mechanism.

The 5th Dimension?

Is Heaven and Hell somehow intertwined with string theory? Is God nonexistent? Since all three exist, they likely are involved with string theory. There may be large extra dimensions. D-branes are extended objects of various dimensionalities predicted by string theory. This may explain why gravity is exponentially weaker than other forces, as it effectively dilutes itself when going into a higher-dimensional volume.

COSMOS 3D dark matter map.
‘3D’ map of the huge distribution of dark matter, reconstructed by weak gravitational lensing with the Hubble Space Telescope is available. Attribution: NASA/ESA/Richard Massey

This three-dimensional map offers a look at the large-scale distribution of invisible dark matter, and most of the Universe’s mass. It reveals a network of dark matter, gradually collapsing under the pull of gravity, and growing clumpier over time. The three axes of the box correspond to sky position, and distance from the Earth increasing from left to right. Clumping of dark matter becomes more pronounced, moving right to left, from the early Universe to the more recent Universe. In the distribution of mass in the COSMOS survey, this view covers 9x the size of the moon.

Dark Energy Drives Universe Expansion

Tycho Supernova.
A multi-wavelength image of Tycho’s supernova remnant, the result of a stellar explosion. I was first recorded over 400 years ago by astronomer Tycho Brahe. Supernovas have provided clues as to the rate of the universe’s expansion. Astronomers have measured the acceleration rate and determined dark energy constitutes more than two-thirds of the energy content of the cosmos, but its identity has defeated theoretical physicists.
Image courtesy A multi-wavelength image of Tycho’s supernova remnant, the result of a stellar explosion first recorded over 400 years ago by astronomer Tycho Brahe. Supernovas have provided clues as to the rate of the universe’s expansion. Astronomers have measured the acceleration rate and determined dark energy constitutes more than two-thirds of the energy content of the cosmos, but its identity has defeated theoretical physicists.
Image courtesy NASANASA

Dark energy is currently driving the accelerated expansion of the universe. Edward Kipreos pushes change in how one thinks about time dilation. The slowing of time predicted by Albert Einstein is indicative of dark energy. An object in high gravity will have slower time than an object in low gravity. In contrast, Einstein’s describes reciprocal time dilation between two moving objects, where both objects’ times appear to be slowed down relative to each other.

Observation of supernovas at larger distances are fainter than would be expected provided evidence the rate of universe expansion has accelerated recently. Per Kipreos, “The accelerated expansion of the universe has been attributed to the effects of dark energy. However, there is no understanding of what dark energy is or why it has manifested only recently.”

In the film “Interstellar,” scientists travel through a wormhole to access planets with conditions of sustaining life. The scientists grapple with time dilation, for each hour on a planet is equivalent to seven years on Earth.

Also read:

Light from galaxy clusters confirms theory of relativity

Hubble finds universe may be expanding faster than expected