A recent paper in the journal Nature entitled, “Early assembly of the most massive galaxies,” reports that astronomers’ discovery of massive galaxies fully developed five billion years after the big bang raises serious questions about the widely accepted galaxy formation models.
In these mainstream theoretical models, large galaxies grow through mergers with smaller galaxies, which is a much slower process than the rapid growth rate actually observed recently by astronomers. Thus, there must be some other undiscovered galaxy growth mechanism at work, they say.
This mystery was reflected in a related article in ScienceNews entitled, “Heavyweight Galaxies In The Young Universe – Newfound massive galaxies may force theorists to revisit formation model” and in an article in New Scientist titled, “Overweight galaxies force-fed by dark matter tendrils.”
What factors might have caused the rapid growth rate of massive galaxies during their first five billion years, other than through hierarchical galaxy mergers? The factors that we would be addressing would fall into the category of the Top-Down theory of galaxy formation since the alternative Bottom-Up theory of galaxy formation is limited to the hierarchical galaxy merger process.
Since dark matter is estimated to represent about 83 percent of the mass of the universe and the mass of the dark matter halo of a spiral galaxy is about ten times greater than the galaxy’s ordinary mass, it is logical to search for answers to the rapid-galaxy-growth enigma within the realm of dark matter.
We might have tried to work with Cold Dark Matter WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), but since their makeup is unknown and their existence has not been confirmed, even after 25 years of research, analysis could not yield much new information that could be used to solve the enigma of the early rapid-galaxy- growth observations.
Although his 2003 book was scientifically radical, no scientist has yet written a scientific paper, book, or article opposing Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter model. This article will now proceed to provide a logical and plausible explanation for the recently discovered high growth rate of massive galaxies during the first five billion years after the big bang.
The explanation relies on the dark matter of the universe being comprised primarily of relativistic-proton dark matter; the existence of which is supported by Drexler’s books, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos,” 2006 and “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology,” 2008, and scientific papers in 2005 and 2007. For most of the last twenty years, cosmology professors taught that massive galaxies were formed by a multi-step process.
The gravitational collapse of small gas clumps would occur first, followed by their gravitational merger into larger and larger galaxies. This multi-step merger process is called a hierarchical galaxy formation process, which is in the category of the Bottom-Up theory of galaxy formation. Drexler may have been one of the first scientists in recent years to question this hierarchical galaxy formation process and its associated Bottom-Up theory in his paper, astro-ph/0504512, April 22, 2005, “Identifying Dark Matter through the Constraints Imposed by Fourteen Astronomically Based ‘Cosmic Constituents.'”
This scientific paper can be read at the free educational Web site: (http://www.jeromedrexler.org/) , under “Papers.” A relevant and timely paragraph from page 9 of his April 2005 paper reads, “Mature galaxies in a young Universe.
The recent discovery of the existence of mature galaxies only about 2.5 billion years after the Big Bang (and confirmed by the Carnegie Observatories on March 10, 2005) can be explained using the relativistic proton dark matter theory that involves fast protons that slow down over time due to synchrotron radiation losses, but raises questions about the cold dark matter bottom-up theory of galaxy formation which involves only slow-moving particles.
The referenced articles in the July 2004 issue of Nature are entitled, ‘A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang’ and ‘Old galaxies in the young Universe.’ The Carnegie Observatories had announced in a news release on March 10, 2005 that ‘Astronomers have found distant red galaxies “very massive and old” in the universe when it was only 2.5 billion years post Big Bang.'”
The 2009 Nature paper involving early galaxy growth is more advanced than the July 2004 early-galaxy-growth Nature paper in several respects. The 2009 Nature paper sought explanations based upon the Top-Down theory of galaxy formation, the existence of the filamentary dark matter web passing through galaxies (and galaxy clusters), and the possible role of filamentary dark matter as a pipe or conduit of hydrogen into large and massive galaxies that were experiencing a high rate of growth during the first 5 billion years after the big bang.
The 2009 Nature paper might have been even more advanced if it had included both the previous paragraph and the following paragraph from Drexler’s April 22, 2005 paper: “Long, large DM filaments creating galaxy clusters. The September 8-9, 2004 news releases from NASA/Harvard entitled, ‘Motions in nearby galaxy cluster reveal presence of hidden superstructure’ regarding Chandra x-ray images of the Fornax cluster states: ‘Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect.’
It should be noted that such a filamentary dark matter structure could be a slightly curved portion of a DM halo around or within some galaxy supercluster. This relatively new top-down theory of galaxy cluster formation is compatible with the relativistic proton dark matter theory as described in the author’s book published in December 2003  (Prior to September 8, 2004, the standard theory of cold dark matter galaxy formation was based upon the bottom-up hierarchical model wherein small galaxies form first and then gravitationally move together over time to form larger galaxies and galaxy clusters.)”
Thus, from a cosmology standpoint, Drexler’s April 22, 2005 paper might be considered more advanced than the 2009 Nature paper, “Early assembly of the most massive galaxies.” This would be based upon Drexler’s four-year-earlier recognition of
(1) the importance of the Top-Down theory of galaxy formation,
(2) the importance of filamentary dark matter to act as a pipe or conduit of hydrogen into large and massive galaxies that were experiencing a high rate of growth during the first 5 billion years after the big bang,
(3) the importance of his relativistic-proton dark matter in being able to both provide and feed protons/hydrogen fuel directly into galaxies and galaxy clusters,
(4) the importance of his relativistic-proton dark matter in creating muons and in triggering and facilitating the hydrogen fusion in stars, and
(5) the importance of his relativistic-proton dark matter in causing the accelerating expansion of the universe and in providing the source of dark energy.
Drexler has documented his seven years of dark matter/dark energy research, its timeline, its interaction with mainstream cosmology, and the overwhelming evidence that relativistic-proton dark matter represents the principal constituent of the dark matter of the universe in the following six publications.
(1) Scientific Web site dated December 8, 2008, entitled, “Discovering Dark Matter Cosmology” at: (http://www.jeromedrexler.org/) .
(2) Paperback book, March 1, 2008, “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology: Discoveries in Dark Matter, Cosmic Web, Big Bang, Inflation, Cosmic Rays, Dark Energy, Accelerating Cosmos.”
(3) Scientific paper, physics/0702132, February 15, 2007, “A Relativistic-Proton Dark Matter Would Be Evidence the Big Bang Probably Satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics.”
(4) Paperback book, May 22, 2006, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos: Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics.”
(5) Scientific paper, astro-ph/0504512, April 22, 2005, “Identifying Dark Matter through the Constraints Imposed by Fourteen Astronomically Based ‘Cosmic Constituents.'”
(6) Paperback book, December 15, 2003, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun: An Astrophysics Detective Story.”