Relativistic Dark Matter May Solve Big Bang Enigma, Says Astro-Cosmology Author Jerome Drexler
In a surprising manner, the Big Bang may have satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics. An understanding of this phenomenon is helped by an excerpt from Stephen Hawking’s earlier tutorial on the subjects of disorder, entropy, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the arrow of time:
“It is a matter of common experience, that things get more disordered and chaotic with time. This observation can be elevated to the status of a law, the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamics. This says that the total amount of disorder, or entropy, in the universe, always increases with time.”
If the amount of disorder, or entropy, in the universe always increases with time, then at the beginning of time the entropy must have been at its lowest level. The Big Bang also occurred at the beginning of time. Therefore, if we accept the Second Law of Thermodynamics, we must also accept that shortly after the Big Bang the entropy of the universe would be at the lowest level it would reach throughout all time.
However, the Big Bang is normally characterized as a chaotic massive fiery explosion associated with a high level of disorder and entropy. We are thus faced with a enigma/dilemma as to the level of entropy following the Big Bang, but we are not alone.
On November 18, 2004, the University of Chicago published an article entitled, “Astrophysicists attempt to answer the mystery of entropy,” that contains the following relevant two-sentence paragraph: “But the mystery remains as to why entropy was low in the universe to begin with. The difficulty of that question has long bothered scientists, who most often simply leave it as a puzzle to answer in the future.”
If the entropy following the Big Bang had been very low the Second Law of Thermodynamics would have been satisfied, but how could a fiery, chaotic Big Bang explosion have a low entropy? That is the enigma that, “has long bothered scientists.”
Jerome Drexler sees a possible solution to this enigma that would have the Big Bang firing out, in all directions, high-speed ultra-high-energy (UHE) relativistic protons and helium nuclei in a ratio of 12 to 1. A very high percentage of the energies of these relativistic nuclei would be available to do work in the universe while their entropy, the measure of the amount of their energy which is unavailable to do work, would be very low. Such a Big Bang, characterized by a dispersion of UHE relativistic nuclei, could create an ultra-high usable energy and an ultra-low entropy, and could be designated a Relativistic Big Bang.
The temperature of a Relativistic Big Bang could be estimated by averaging the energies of the relativistic protons and helium nuclei. The estimated temperature would be extremely high and probably of the same order of magnitude as the temperature scientists estimate for the Big Bang. Nevertheless, the Relativistic Big Bang would have the very low entropy that the Second Law of Thermodynamics requires for the “beginning of time.”
Some astronomical evidence for a Relativistic Big Bang (RBB) comes from the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) protons that bombard the Earth every day. The RBB is the most plausible origin of the UHECR’s. In Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter theory these UHECR’s are stragglers from the galaxy-orbiting UHE relativistic protons that form the dark matter streams in the halos surrounding galaxies.
It is widely accepted that the mass of dark matter today totals about 83 percent of the mass of the universe and that dark matter was created by the Big Bang. (Drexler’s top-down theory of galaxy formation (see below) puts this percentage closer to 100 percent during the Big Bang.) Because of this very strong Big Bang-dark matter linkage, strong evidence of the existence of relativistic-proton dark matter would provide strong evidence for the existence of the Relativistic Big Bang. Drexler believes that his 2003 and 2006 books, his 2005 scientific paper, and his 2006/2007 scientific newswires provide very strong scientific evidence for the existence of relativistic-proton dark matter and therefore for the existence of the RBB.
Cosmological support for a RBB could come via compatibility with, for example, the CMB, or Cosmic Inflation, or the Second Law of Thermodynamics, or the temperatures of the Big Bang, or entropy magnitudes, or the mass values estimated for dark matter particles, or the fact that 83 percent of the universe mass is dark matter. Note that a RBB would be a very efficient way of creating a universe and conserving its energy because the fewest number of particles and the least useless energy would be created and dispersed. These characteristics appear to be especially compatible with Cosmic Inflation theory and its associated big bang.
The title of Drexler’s Dec. 2003 book is, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun.” The title of his April 22, 2005, 19-page scientific paper is, “Identifying Dark Matter Through the Constraints Imposed by Fourteen Astronomically Based ‘CosmicConstituents.'” (PDF)
The title of Drexler’s 2006 book is, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos: Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics.” This book provides strong scientific evidence that the dark matter of the universe is comprised of galaxy-orbiting relativistic protons. This is demonstrated by utilizing the relativistic-proton dark matter hypothesis, in conjunction with the laws of physics, to derive explanations for more than 15 unsolved cosmic mysteries.
Drexler’s top-down theory of galaxy formation is explained in the pages of ten Index references in his 2006 book. Both books are published by Universal Publishers and both books are currently on an Amazon.com Best Seller list in the United Kingdom. They are sold by Universal Publishers, Amazon.com, Barnes&Noble.com, and other book sellers.
Jerome Drexler, former NJIT Research Professor of physics at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and retired Chairman and chief scientist of LaserCard Corp. (Nasdaq: LCRD), began his career as a Member of the Technical Staff of Bell Laboratories.
He has been granted 76 U.S. patents, honorary Doctor of Science degrees from NJIT and Upsala (Uppsala) College , a degree of Honorary Fellow of the Technion, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship at Stanford University, a three-year Bell Labs graduate study fellowship, the “Inventor of the Year” Award in 1990 for Silicon Valley, and the AMP program at Harvard.
CONTACT: Jerome Drexler, 650-941-2716, [email protected]