Since Chinese civilization began with agriculture that was principle of mode of production for thousands of years, has close connection with nature and is being sustained with such a long history. China, a largest country in East Asia, has emerged as most influential global power. Historical evidences reveal that China established commercial and cultural exchange with western world civilizations from ancient times. There are 56 nationalities in China, of which the largest group by far is the “Han”. Han and Tang contributed greatly to Chinese culture. China’s political, legal and civil service systems were established during those two dynasties. China, during Han Dynasty initiated building strong relation with her neighbor countries. Silk Road opened during the period was key point to link China with rest of the world. The traders did spread Chinese silk, porcelain, tea to other parts of Asia even Europe.
Confucius 551-478 B.C. was famous and probably one of the best known Chinese historical figures of all times. Confucius lived in the state of Lu (King who ignored Confucius’ teaching). In those times, the Shang Dynasty had come to end and China was in a state of disintegration upheaval. However next generations recognized Confucius’ wisdoms. Confucius proverb states- ‘All works of life are lowly, only the scholar stands high’. Confucius temple is located at Cheng Xian Guoxue museum side with yellow title of red wall and old tress around the temple. This temple was established in the 6th years of Emperor Dade’s regime of the Yuan Dynasty in 1306 AD. Because Confucius was of wisdom of his times, I have great respect to this philosopher. I visited this temple on 21st April 2014. Beijing Confucian Temple covers the area of 22,000 square meters and consists of 3 courtyards. There are three exhibitions in the Confucian Temple including ‘Exhibition of the great Confucius.’
The religion of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucius’s wisdom and Islam has been influential in the historical and cultural development in China. However religious influence on Chinese has narrowed since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, all religious beliefs were denounced and it is said that number of religious monuments were destroyed. However, farther most people in China claim to hold the religious belief. And, then Chinese Government recognized Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Protestant and Catholicism as official religions.
It seems that Christians may play the conspirator role to divide China in the name of religion. The Chinese former President Hun Jig Tao had said- ‘It is important for all of us to focus on saving the Chinese culture in countering and being alert towards the long term strategy predicated on the Western Christian policy of spreading their culture and views in China and ultimately disintegrating China.’ mindful of the purpose of Christian missions, European Union, Indian and American intelligence agencies- Raw and CIA- respectively, had given a speech in regards Christian policy at the Chinese Communist Party’s central meeting held in October 2011.
Although China has long history but authentic historical evidences can be found after 200 BC. The Emperor Qin Shi Huang-Ti (221 BC) who destroyed the Zhou dynasty and proclaimed himself as China’s first emperor, captured the state power and destroyed all the China’s historical sources, materials, inscriptions and temples. The King Qin Shi Huang-Ti had expanded Chinese territory to Mongolia in the north and annexed many places. He constructed the Great wall for the security purpose. Now, the Great wall’s various sections have a combined length of more than 6,700 Kilometers. Starting in Hebei Providence at Shanhai Pass, it stretches across China’s Northern providences before ending the Jiayu Pass in Gabsu Provience. The Great Wall is listed as one of the world’s cultural heritage sites and regarded by many as one of the modern wonders of the world. The Emperor Qin Shi Huang-Ti first gave the order to connect and extend existing walls to form one continuous line of defense. The construction project over exceedingly difficult terrain and without modern machinery makes it a truly amazing architectural wonder. More than 13 accessible sections of the Great Wall lie in the mountains north of Beijing within the municipality. The most well-known are the sections of Badaling, Mutianyu, Simatai, Juyongguan, Gubeikou, Huanghua and Jinlinshan.
During my recent China trip, I accompanied with my family-Sanubaba, climbed Badaling site of Great wall on 2nd April of 2014. An old Chinese saying goes-‘you are not a real man if you haven’t climbed the Great Wall’. It is largest human creation existing on this earth. It is wonderful. It stands as a symbol of human will power. I truly admire centuries’ long continuation of building such a huge construction. It is especially noteworthy when several dynasties rose to and fell down from the throne during its construction. But, there was a single concern – the security of nation, and single mission – protection from foreign invaders. What a brave patriotism!
After visiting ancient Chinese monument, I wanted to visit modern time creation and construction of China. Next day on 3rd Apr. 2014 we decided, to visit the Olympic Stadium of Beijing. This is no doubt, most interesting part of the 2008 Olympics Park. Opening and closing ceremonies of 2008 Olympics were held in this stadium. The stadium is bowl-shaped structure and nicknamed the ‘Bird’s Nest’ due to its design. It is, built with a capacity for 100,000; and covers an area of 204,100 square meters. I was impressed not only with its architecture but also with ultra modern technologies applied here. It is symbol of advancement of Chinese technology. Every Chinese people would feel proud of this historic place.
Again with an enthusiasm to observed ancient Chinese culture and philosophy, we visited the Temple of Heaven which is one of the must-see destinations in Beijing. It was first built in 1420, and was constructed during the late Ming and then Qing dynasties. The emperor used come here to worship Shangdi- the God of Heaven and pray for good harvest. The Temple of Heaven is designed thematically, with the round-shaped walls of the main building represent heaven and square-shaped wall at the base represent earth. The complex is only symbolically laid out on a north-south axis. Ancient Chinese people considered living by the rules of nature to be very important; only then can one obtain good future.
The history of cultural exchange between Nepal and China is almost thousand years old. The most significant cultural exchange is imprinted in history as travel of Nepalese architect named ‘Araniko”. He constructed several Stupas and temples in specific Nepali style. The most famous monument is White pagoda (at Miaoying Temple) built in 1271 AD in Beijing. We visited the white pagoda built by Aranika in Pagoda style.
As earlier stated Buddhism is one of the three important religions in China. Among several thoughts, Tibetian Buddhism is main stream of Buddhism in China. Lama Temple is most important Buddha temple in Beijing. It is very famous which is surrounded in a big area and many people have been engaging to devotee the Buddha’s Mantra- ‘Om Mani Padme Hum.’
Currently my daughter-Tista and son in law Dev Raj Joshi are studying in China, so obviously, I was curious about Chinese education system. We visited one of the top universities in China- ‘Tsinghua University’. I was informed that most incredible human resource including the top political leaders of China were produced from this university. I believe that recent Chinese achievements in science and economy must have been seeded in terms of education several years back.
Being quite impressed with Chinese rapid growth and developments, I had a doubt how they are maintaining environment and protecting greenery with such huge human population. Many cities in the world are just dry forests of concrete. There is enough greenery in the city because there are several parks and garden all over the Beijing metropolitan. We along with some Nepalese students in Beijing visited Beijing Botanical Garden. I found the garden as a live museum of plant diversity. In particular some ornamental flowers plant attracted me. It is very nice place to watch nature, get relax and I think it would be wonderful field for education research in this field. We also visited Beijing zoo, one of greater zoo in the world. Not only Beijing climate animals, but also entirely different climate animal species are maintained securely and safely. Visiting these places I felt so happy and satisfied that China is paying to attention to environmental protection, but also developing these places as tourist destinations.
Once you visit Beijing China, you would have great interest to be in Tiananmen Square. Tiananmen Square, located in the heart of Beijing is the largest square with dimension of 880m long and 500m wide. The Gate was built in 1417 and served as a rostrum for announcing the enthronement of new emperors and issuing edicts to assembled officials. Top candidates in the imperial exams were also honored there and prisoners were sentenced to death at the foot of the gate. The gate was closed after the end of monarchical system. On the 11th of April of 2014, we visited Tiananmen Square area which is center of Beijing. Memorial Hall of Chairman Mao is at the south side of Tiananmen Square. I paid my respect to Chairman Mao, a great historical leader of China, in front of his open coffin in Mao Zedong Memorial Hall. This Hall is divided into three Halls. Mao’s body lies in a crystal coffin in one of the halls surrounded by fresh bouquets of various flowers and grasses. On the other side of the Tiananmen Square, there is Forbidden City which is called Palace Museum where from Mao Zedong proclaimed that the People’s Republic of China ‘Chinese people had of stood up’ and announced ‘Chinese people had stood up’ while standing atop Tiananmen Gate, on October 1, 1949.
The Tiananmen Squire is the biggest and most important place of China where The Great Hall of people, the President Office, National Peoples’ Congress Hall, national and international Guest Meeting Hall, Banquet hall and many official works and activities calibrates. The building of Great Hall erected in 1959. The great Auditorium behind the Central Hall seats 10,000. The Banqueting Hall is a huge hall with 5,000 seats.
The Communism was considered as the gift for the poor Chinese people. The 1917 October Revolution in Russia was the blast that sent the shock waves of Marxism to the Chinese people and successfully guided the Bolshevik Revolution led of 1919 trampled on the rights of the Chinese people. And then gradually after long people’s war, with the continuous struggle of Chinese nationalists the People Republic of China was founded in 1949. The great nationalist Communist leader Mao Zedong made the historical proclamation with People’s Republic of China 1949. The old Beiping became Beijing and was declared the national capital of unified nation under the command of the Chinese Communist Party. The great Proletariat Cultural Revolution was launched in the middle of 1966 with a call to rid the nation of the ‘old culture, old customs, old thinking’.
Temples, Churches and many of the nation’s cultural sites were defaced or destroyed in the name of Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution ended after the death of Mao Zedong in Sep. 1976 and fall of Gang of Four in Nov. of the same year. Following the death of Chairman Mao, with the rise of Deng Xiaoping, China was ushered into an era of political and economic reform and opening up. The winds of change across the entire cities as private enterprises were endorsed. Politically, Chinese people began to demand the standards of living improved as the economy began to soar and industry prospered. This overall and integrated development and progress has made China an immerging power in all over the world. The innovative Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping said- ‘Poverty is not socialism, to be rich is glorious.’
Since the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China has all along stood for the development of diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with all countries and against aggression, hegemony and power politics. The Chinese people need peace and development more than anything else and hold them the dearest. China has committed itself to equality, friendship, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation with all countries in the world in keeping with the tide of history, and to self-reliance, reform, innovation and scientific approach to development while transcending the traditional models, so as to achieve a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development and build a harmonious socialist society. China, not only in the field of trade and business, but also became able to develop science and technology. Moreover China is heading towards integrated and multilateral development.
The leader Deng put forward the concept of building socialism with Chinese characteristics 31 years ago. Even after the death of Deng Xiaoping, his policies were continued and the result is present powerful and influential China. President Jiang Zemin (1993-2002) focused on substantial developmental with reforms, and returned Hong Kong from the United Kingdom and Macau from Portugal, and improved its relations with the outside world. President Hu Jintao (2002-2012) led China for peaceful development journey from world’s seventh economy to second largest world economy Since March 2013; the Communist Party of China has appointed Xi Jinping as General Secretary and then The President of China. President Xi Jinping succeeded President Hu Jintao.
The president Xi Jinping, opened the dream depended on, I) the people, and benefits and equal opportunities to them, II) united strength of the people as an invincible force with wisdom and power, and III) having dreams together benefiting from national development. Taking united strength of the people as an invincible force with wisdom and power. The wealth or prosperity gap between the rural and urban sections of the population constrains a sizeable member of people from dreaming big. Xi’s Chinese dream also takes care of this section of people and makes them able to dream. China has ranked as the second biggest economy in the world. China is expected to realize its goal of becoming a moderately prosperous country by 2020.