1. CLIMATE CHANGE / ATMOSPHERIC SHIFT
Spiegel Online – 12/04/2008: POINT OF NO RETURN FOR THE ARCTIC CLIMATE
U.S. National Snow and Ice Center: From 1990’s to Sept. 2007 the Arctic sea ice is reduced by 40% and is now half as large as Europe. Water temperatures in the Bering Sea between Alaska and eastern Siberia were 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than average – – warmer than ever.
Point of No Return: A team of U.S.A., Norwegian and German researchers provide some clues. The study based upon impenetrable calculations contains a frightening possibility: climate change in the Arctic could already have passed the point of no return. Researchers have warned of “tipping points,” and beyond could mean irreversible developments for eco-systems and humanity, such as the Arctic being ice-free during the summer months. “In the case of Arctic Sea ice, we have already reached the point of no return,” according to Mr. James Hansen of NASA.
Warm air from the Pacific Ocean now move into the Arctic Ocean in very large volumes in the summer of 2007. Mr. James Overland at Pacific Marine Environmental Labs in Seattle states that if the disappearance of Arctic ice as was observed in 2007 continues in 2008 and beyond, then the ice cap becomes so small that it will not be able to survive the warm summer months. A similar “dipolar” pattern existed in the 1930s when warm air from the North Atlantic pushed into the Arctic up to the North Latitude of 75 degrees, but today, the heat spreads through the entire Arctic. The sudden rise in temperatures in the Arctic is much faster than the climate models indicate, and the greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting Earth atmosphere are not enough to explain this phenomenon.
My explanation is: “The present snow storms and cold weather systems that are pushed into the United States and Europe are because of the large amounts of warm air from the Pacific Ocean being pushed into the Arctic which are then cooled, and converted (condensed) into moisture, and eventually forced to move southward. The Bering Sea is now 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer the average. Continuous generated warm air pressure and moisture keeps pushing the cooled Arctic weather southward, which can result into large snowstorms and blizzards.
This is identical or very similar as the circular water flow pattern of the Atlantic Gulf Stream and the Pacific Ocean Currents. Sufficient heat energy and moisture will force large cold fronts from the Arctic very far southward, including into New Orleans, Mexico and into Southern Europe. A thinner ozone layer is increasingly heating the global tropical equatorial region and the Earth rotation distributes the generated heat from Africa across the Atlantic Ocean into Central America, and then into the Pacific Ocean and Indonesia to form a continuous heat belt that drives the ocean currents in the Atlantic and the Pacific.
This equatorial heat belt is functioning very much like an electric motor driving two (2) major conveyor belts. The conveyor belts are the Atlantic Gulf Stream and the Pacific Ocean Currents.
The big problem is that the warm Pacific air, as well as the warm Pacific Ocean water current now is melting the Arctic ice at an accelerating rate. The same problem is occurring in the Atlantic Ocean with large ice losses in Greenland. The volume of warm Atlantic and Pacific air currents moving into the Arctic region can be observed, measured, and the effects monitored according to present atmospheric and sudden climate changes. The warm Atlantic and Pacific air currents and warm Atlantic and Pacific Ocean water flow require careful monitoring, and it is becoming rather alarming. How can this equatorial heat belt be slowed down or maybe stopped?
THE BIG MELT: 2 TRILLION TONS SINCE 2003
The Associated Press – Washington – Dec. 17, 2008
More than 2 trillion tons of land ice have melted in Greenland, Antarctic and the Arctic since 2003 according to NASA satellite data. That is an average of 400 billion tons/year. To date the Alaska 2008 land ice increased slightly because of large winter snowfalls, and since 2003, Alaska has lost 400 billion tons of land ice. Jay Zwally at NASA: “It’s not getting better; it’s continuing to show strong signs of warming and amplification. There is no reversal taking place.” Parts of north of Alaska were 9 to 10 degrees warmer this fall. The loss of Arctic ice has raised autumn air temperatures by 6 to 10 degrees higher than in the 1980s. The pace of change is starting to outstrip our ability to keep up, in terms of understanding of it, per Mr. Mark Serrize, Sr. Scientist at Boulder Data Center. Frozen methane in lakebeds and sea bottoms in Siberia are bubbling to the surface in alarming amounts.
At this point I should disclose one answer to the impending catastrophic problem of climate change. As early as the late 1960s, I have contacted U.S. senate and congressional leaders that large volumes of “static electricity” emitted into the atmosphere that are being generated worldwide from electric power generation, radar stations, industrial, and public electricity consumption, including the so-called “Super Secret Electronic Warfare System” were adversely charging the entire global atmosphere with “static electricity.” The Senator Barry Goldwater publicly disclosed that the “Super Secret Electronic Warfare System” should be discontinued. Senator Goldwater was warned not to disclose national secrets. I referred to this system as the “Super Secret Electronic Warfare and Spy System” and I disclosed that such large volumes of static electricity would cause changes in wind currents, patterns and could cause global climate changes. Instead our government and military spend large sums of money for research of bouncing signals and beams of energy off the ionosphere.
The more recent, and large amounts of satellites and the use of computers and cellular phones generate an ever increasing amount of static electricity into the atmosphere, which in conjunction with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gas emissions are accelerating the problem of global warming and climate change. Senator Barry Goldwater was correct, and the “Super Secret Warfare System should be closed down. The climate change problem is becoming worse with the introduction of more electricity production and emissions from solar panels, windmills, nuclear power and radiation, bio-fuel, electric cars, and the general electricity consumption by an expanding world population. Better electricity insulation and heat absorption/containment would help substantially, but we do not have sufficient technology available, and the worldwide industrial economic sector is not willing or cannot invest adequate funds in such a major global technological revolution.
The best and most useful solution is hydrogen energy and my hydrogen regeneration processes, combined with effective heat insulation methods for most energy generating and consuming applications. The climate change problem is two-fold. One problem is the volume of static electricity in the atmosphere and the other problem are the Greenhouse Gas and chemical emissions into the global atmosphere. Obviously, if direct action is not taken to effectively mitigate the climate change problems, then we can expect to face a global catastrophe.
PROJECT SANGUINE – EXTREMEY LOW FREQUENCY (ELF) BY U.S. NAVY
The object of this system was to communicate with nuclear missile carrying submarines while submerged in the oceans of 200 feet below water surface. The installation of this extremely low frequency system covers an area of 1,250 square miles and is used for transmitting radio waves at 45 to 75 Hz. This large grid sends not only electricity and radio waves into the ionosphere, but also charges and saturates the ionosphere until such transmission signals are bounced off and penetrate deep ocean waters worldwide for communication with missile carrying submarines. The ionosphere is located at 30 miles to 250 miles above the earth, and electrified signals and radio waves have to pass through the Troposphere (altitude from 0 to 10 miles), the Stratosphere (10-30 miles) and the Mesosphere (30-55 miles). These layers that envelope the earth, are also being continuously charged with static electricity, which ultimately have to affect the weather and climate. This is very simple to understand when studying the molecular structure and composition of the Earth atmosphere.
The article Brown Cloud Hazards below was published by the Oregonian on 11/26/2008, and it is an example of ongoing serious climate changes.
Vast clouds of air pollution are darkening the skies in many parts of Asia, melting glaciers and posing a threat to the health of millions in the region, according to a new United Nations report. The “atmospheric brown clouds” (ABC) result from the burning of fossil fuels, wood and plants. They have been found to amplify the impact of climate change brought on by greenhouse gas emissions, the U.N. Environment Program report said. The 10,000-foot-thick layer of soot and industrial pollution has been observed stretching from the Arabian Peninsula to China and the islands of the western Pacific. The Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABC) make the skies in at least 13 major Asian cities up to 25 percent dimmer and contribute to public health hazards, the report says. Some researchers involved in the study said they were concerned the diminished sunlight could threaten agricultural production for 3 billion people in the region.
Other reports show fossil fuel pollution is crossing the Pacific Ocean into the Western United States and Canada, and soon will affect the forests and agriculture of the United States, including Canada. If affective climate change measures are not taken very soon, then the U.S. and many other countries will experience major economic and environmental consequences.
The cool global temperatures during the last several months from September-November of 2008 are attributed to the melting of ice caps, ice shelves in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain glaciers worldwide. Ocean sea water levels are rising substantially, and the present trend could have disastrous impacts upon millions of people in low lying coastal areas. The National Centers of Space Studies in France used two (2) new satellite-based observations and gravity measurements of the Earth. They found that the Greenland ice sheet alone is losing about 150 gigatons of ice each year, which, when combined with global melting ice, including West Antarctica, causes the oceans to cool, and is cooling our present unseasonal global weather. This appears to make sense, but this is not good news in 4 years.
2006 Greenland ice sheet melted at about 195 cubic kilometers (46.7 cubic miles) per year according to U.S. satellite between 2003 -2008. Present CO2 volume in Greenland is 385 ppm. Greenland previously used to be ice-free at 400 parts per million.
The Himalayan glaciers receded by 66 feet in 2007 and could disappear in 30 years from Kolhai in Kashmir due to climate change. The Chinese Academy of Sciences discloses that at current rates of retreat the Himalayan glaciers could shrink by 75% by 2050. These glaciers are the source of water for billions of people in China, India and Pakistan.
August 16, 2008 – The latest information from National Snow and Ice Center (NSIDC) said a “reasonable” time for a total summer (Arctic) ice loss would be 2030. An ice free Arctic Ocean was previously projected to occur around 2050, 2070 to 2100, but some scientists believe it could be in 5 years, or in 2013. The first 10 days of August, 2008, Arctic sea ice declined by 390,000 square miles due to unusual weather conditions. In June, 2008, the National Center for Atmospheric Research reported that: “the rapid loss of sea ice could more than triple the rate of climate warming over northern Alaska, Canada and Russia.” The Peru Andean glaciers are expected to melt in approximately 25 years, and 70% of Peru’s electricity comes from hydropower.
On August 20, 2008, Ecologists, scientists, and the University of Alaska state that 13,700 year old, 22 foot thick peat bogs are drying up on the Kenay Peninsula, just south of Anchorage, Alaska. Records show Alaska has averaged 5 degrees warmer temperatures since 1960 during winter months. Mr. Glenn Juday, Forest Ecologist at Alaska University says: “We have mounds of evidence that an extremely powerful and unprecedented climate-driven change is underway.” “These changes are underway and there are more changes coming.”
Global warming is a major contributor for beetle infestations of 50 million acres of forest stretching from Alaska to the Southwestern USA. Infestations in British Columbia alone amount to half the size of California. The mountain pine beetle in British Columbia has killed about 40% of pine forest since mid 1990’s and cause billions of dollars in annual losses. Because of warmer temperatures, pine beetles now are found in much higher mountain elevations in Alaska, Canada, USA and Russia.
The International Energy Agency in March 2008 Oil Market Report shows current global oil production/ supply/consumption at 87.5 million barrels per day, or about 31.9 billion barrels annually. 1-barrel of oil = 42 gallons, and 1-Gallon of gasoline = 20.35 lbs. of CO2. The global use of fossil fuel is pumping 8.4 billion metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere in 2006 alone, and without question such vast annual emissions of CO2 and chemical pollutants produce major ozone damage, and climate changes.
Report by U.S. Climate Change Science Program – June 19, 2008: North America may get more abnormally hot days and nights, heavier downpours and deadlier storms from global warming. Elevated temperatures in recent decades already have led to more intense rainstorms in the Midwest, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. The probability of heavy downpours is increasing, which leads to events like what we’re seeing in the Midwest. From 1980 to 2006, there have been 70 weather-related U.S. disasters that each caused more than $1 billion in damage the study said. Continued warming, which scientists have blamed largely on a greenhouse effect stemming from carbon-dioxide emissions and deforestation, may also lead to more frequent droughts, it concluded. Those types of events will increase in frequency as time goes on and global temperatures increase.
Last month, the U.S. Energy Dept. and NASA reported that burning fossil fuels in power plants and automobiles is most likely responsible for global warming, endorsing an opinion accepted by many of the world’s scientists. Human-induced warming is known to effect climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. Within a changing climate system, some of what are now considered to be extreme events will occur more frequently. Carbon dioxide, a byproduct of burning coal, oil and natural gas, contributed most to global warming in the last century, the climate program said.
World motor vehicle registrations amounted over 681 million in July, 2002, and current March, 2008, world oil production/supply/consumption amounted to 87.5 million barrels per day. The Carnegie Dept. of Global Ecology says: Carbon dioxide is rising at a much faster rate than before.” Since 2000, CO2 growth rate has been 3.3% per year, and emissions were 35% higher in 2006 than in 1990.
A study by the Nat’l. Academy of Sciences released on 10/25/2007, states that carbon released from burning fossil fuels and making cement rose from 7 billion metric tons a year in 2000 to 8.4 billion metric tons in 2006. A metric ton is 2,205 pounds. The growing world economy is fueling the emissions. The Nat’l. Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Lab. in Boulder, Colo. Says: “Carbon sinks were keeping up with the increased emissions, but now they’re not.”
The present sun radiation output fluctuates over the course of its 11-year solar cycle by only 1-tenth of 1% (0.1%), and this is not enough to cause present global warming of this planet Earth. Larger sun radiation fluctuations would be required to produce present global warming events.
Please see the listing of 31,000 of 50,000 American Scientists (Physicists) and 9,000 PhD’s of the American Physical Society, and the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine who signed a Global Warming Petition on website: http://www.oism.org/pproject/ which declares, and “urges the United States government to reject the global warming agreement that was written in Kyoto, Japan, and any other similar proposals.” These scientists propose that limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind.
These 31,000 American Scientists (Physicists) and 9,000 PhD’s claim: “There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the Earth’s climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.” “This treaty is, in our opinion, based upon flawed ideas. Research data on climate do not show that human use of hydrocarbons is harmful. To the contrary, there is good evidence that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is environmentally helpful.” Please see: http://www.oism.org/pproject/
These 31,000 U.S. Scientists (Physicists) and 9,000 PhD’s further claim: “A review of the research literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th Century have produced no deleterious effects upon global weather, climate, or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates. Predictions of harmful climatic effects due to future increases in minor greenhouse gases like CO2 are in error and do not conform to current experimental knowledge.” The 31,000 American scientists (Physicists) are listed in alphabetical order and are listed by states. The public should see who these 31,000 American Scientists (Physicists) and 9,000 PhD’s are: http://www.oism.org/pproject/
Obviously, the 31,000 U.S. Scientists (Physicists) and 9,000 PhD’s are either duped, are not scientists, or just “Charlatans.” This is utterly disgraceful, and their titles as scientists require disqualification for the whole lot of them. According to the latest article from the American Physical Society on August 22, 2008, this Society claims their publication membership contains 46,000 members.
ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY BY NASA
Recent information now discloses that NASA is launching an Orbiting Carbon Observatory called “Climate Time Machine,” in January 2009. The significance is that any person can access via computer past climatic changes, accurate annual CO2 emissions, global temperature changes, monthly rising sea levels, graphic charts of shrinking Arctic Sea Ice, and daily changes in Ozone Hole satellite data.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in coordination with the California Institute of Technology also provide information on causes, effects, solutions, uncertainties including daily updates from a downloaded widget on your PC. Many persons should be given credit for their perseverance, painful sacrifices and hard work for openly defying the oppressive corporate news media who in conjunction with the government engage in massive subversion of politics, science, technology, economic progress and civil liberties.
Global fossil fuel was producing 8.4 billion metric tons of CO2 and chemicals into the atmosphere in 2006, and it is well known that the forests in the USA, Canada, Germany, Britain and Europe have been severely damaged from air pollution (smog) and carbon dioxide by fossil fuel electric power plants. Warming temperatures, and an infestation of bark beetles in South-Central Alaska have destroyed 3 million acres of spruce trees since 1992.
Global warming and climate change research data have been collected from around the globe since the 1960’s by many universities, USA and foreign governments, and findings by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the US Framework Convention on Climate Change (USFCCC). This global research data from many universities, numerous governments and the United Nations is intended to address global problems relating to our very existence and future survival of the human race. To resort and dispute such overwhelming evidence by the American Physical Society and the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine with deliberate, twisted and faulty information is totally absurd and hilarious, but also shameful.
The International Energy Agency in March 2008 Oil Market Report shows current global oil production/ supply/consumption at 87.5 million barrels per day, or about 31.9 billion barrels annually. 1-barrel of oil = 42 gallons, and 1-Gallon of gasoline = 20.35 lbs. of CO2. The global use of fossil fuel is pumping 8.4 billion metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere in 2006 alone, and without question such vast annual emissions of CO2 and chemical pollutants produce major ozone damage, and climate changes.
Atmospheric Shift, Global Warming and Climate Change are truly a reality with convincing and alarming evidence such as Scandinavian Countries are experiencing 3-4 weeks of warmer weather, and pools of water have been seen directly on the North Pole, including widespread famines in Africa and droughts in Australia. An article 3 years ago in the Oregonian newspaper described the changes in the local weather by 7.2 degrees in the last 50 years, or close to 1.4° for every 10 years. In May, 2008, the US Dept. of Energy disclosed that Carbon Dioxide makes up more than 80% of the human produced US greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. Upon further probing and investigation of numerous Climate Change factors, certain answers and conclusions become evident from past and current nationwide/global climate fluctuations.
Global Warming is becoming a more complex issue, as the climate is changing and more severe weather patterns emerge. Global Warming has to be classified into two (2) separate and distinct weather functions, because there are basically 2 separate climate seasons of summer and winter, but each functions with more severity with (tropical) heat during the summer and (arctic) cold in the winter. This is explained by the thinner Ozone Layer causing hotter temperatures in the summer, and the creation of arctic Ozone Holes during the winter months forcing frigid space temperatures and arctic cold temperatures to swoop and swoosh over large portions of the Northern and Southern Hemisphere during the winter months.
If the Ozone Holes become even larger and the Ozone Holes stay open longer for an additional week, and/or it takes longer to close the Ozone Holes, then it can be estimated that very large amounts of frigid cold currents from space will cause major winter climate changes and an extended winter season. Both of these different climate functions are exhibiting greater severity, and are primarily caused by CO2 Concentrations in the atmosphere, and are classified correctly as Global Warming and Climate Change, or more correctly as an Atmospheric Shift.
The Antarctic and Arctic regions are undergoing major climate changes, and the ice shelves are melting at an alarming rate due to warmer temperatures and because of higher concentrations of CO2 and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere primarily from fossil fuel emissions. As the ice is melting, the water is distributed globally, and the water is concentrated in larger quantities in the Southern Hemisphere, because the earth’s landmasses are predominantly located in the Northern Hemisphere.
The world’s landmass surface amounts to 30% of the Earth’s surface area, and the oceans comprise the other 70% of the world surface area. The redistribution of melted water weight from the Arctic and Antarctic into the Southern Hemisphere causes the shifting of the North/South Pole Axis, which has occurred more rapidly, and has accelerated in the last 40 years.
In 1994, the National Geomagnetic Program of Geological Survey of Canada monitored the North Magnetic Pole movement, and found that the Magnetic Pole movement was approximately 9 miles (15 kilometers) each year. According to National Geographic Article of 12/15/2005, new research shows the North Pole is moving into the direction of Siberia at a rather fast pace at 25 miles (40 kilometers) a year and the movement of the Pole definitely appear to be accelerating.
The Magnetic North Pole is located 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) south of the Geographic North Pole. The North Magnetic Pole, on average moves in an elliptical pattern of 50 miles from its center point on a daily basis. Further research also shows that such substantial North Magnetic Pole movements are followed correspondingly by the Geographic North Pole and the Equator. The gradual shifting of the poles (North and South Poles) become evident in warmer temperatures in the northern hemisphere, and gradually in colder temperatures in the southern hemisphere and the South Pole region.
Previous evidence of the shifting of the Earth’s Axis were finds of corals in Newfoundland, elephants in Alaska, fig trees in Northern Greenland, and luxurious forests, ferns, fossilized tree-stumps and coal in Antarctica, water lilies and fossilized palm leaves to 12 feet long in Spitzbergen, swamp cypress within 500 miles of the North Pole in the Miocene period, and mastodons in Siberia with fresh tropical grass in the mouth and stomach without any body tissue deterioration, which confirms that death and freezing was very sudden within a few hours, and is evidence that dramatic shifting of the poles and the Earth’s Axis occurred several times.
Very Important – Atmospheric shifting is global, because the North Pole and South Pole Axis are shifting by approximately 25 miles per year. This means that the climate and weather is undergoing a shift in geographic location, and this produces various changes in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as the Southern Hemisphere. The Earth with the oceans in our atmospheric envelope has established a relatively stable rotation, balance and equilibrium. With ocean water levels rising and water weight migrating into the Southern Hemisphere, a geographic shifting of the North Pole and South Pole Axis occurs. This geographic Pole Axis shift movement appears to produce some problems, and has produced an elliptical gyration pattern that has a daily variation of 50 miles from its center point.
This irregular elliptical gyration indicates that the Earth wobbles and the movement, size and pattern of irregularity have to be closely monitored for any deviations. Electronic instruments with the use of satellites need to be employed for monitoring any fluctuations in the magnetic pole movements and pole axis at the North Pole and the South Pole. The gyration (wobble) of the North Pole and the South Pole is expected to be different from each other.
This atmospheric shift would have an effect on the Equator and climate in the Northern Hemisphere, such as the Gulf Stream, hurricanes, moisture, rain and snowfall. If the Gulf Stream circulation pattern is reduced by warmer temperatures, then it is logical that we can experience more hurricanes and typhoons in the oceans. If the polar axis shift continues to move toward Siberia at 25 miles per year, then this amounts to a 250 mile shift in 10 years. This would have major economic and social implications for the entire Northern Hemisphere countries, as well as the Southern Hemisphere countries. Present data of atmospheric shifting would justify separate and close monitoring of the Magnetic North Pole, South Pole and the equatorial region.
Fossil Fuel Depletion can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) and greenhouse gases eventually, if an alternative to oil is allowed to be developed, but the oil industry is determined to keep control over the oil, auto industry, and the energy field. The oil industry is trying to keep the world economy afloat, but has problems to meet the world=s demand for oil due to oil depletion and constant population growth. Pumping oil from reservoirs at maximum capabilities to satisfy world demands, while exploration and finding new oil fields are diminishing and become futile, then the oil depletion rate is heading into a virtual nosedive in the near future. All natural resources are finite, except for sand and rocks.
A lawsuit in 2007 demanded the release of the U.S. Climate Change Program Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States by the White House National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) with the U.S. Climate Change Science Program was prepared at a cost of $20 billion in research alone. The Bush Administration, bowing to a Court Order, was forced to release a fresh summary of federal and independent research pointing to large, and mainly harmful, impact of human-caused global warming in the United States. When such harmful information from government sponsored research, having major economic, health and financial consequences to this nation, is deliberately withheld from the public by the President of the United States and his staff, then such actions constitute willful obstruction and criminal activities. Major and severe climate changes that now occur in the USA, confirms the research report of the U.S. Climate Change Program Scientific Research Assessment.
Because of the dissension and turbulence about the validity of Global Warming and Climate Change facts by the political right factions, oil companies, and the news media, I have taken the time to analyze and dissect the latest available NASA Satellite Ozone Hole Size data, detailed graphs and charts that have been furnished by the National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center from annual 1980 to 2007 at: www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov. The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the progression of the ozone hole from space and on the ground in Antarctica.
My research was to establish if there is any solid and actual proof if Global Warming and Climate Change are becoming worse according to a rational progression of data from 1980 to 2008, and to make this data available to the public from other sources, including from my own research. My research is a summation and involved various factors, and covered the gradual progression of the size of the ozone hole, the progression of the ozone hole duration (season) in days, and the steady increase in volume and concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the Stratosphere at: www.theozonehole.com
My research has shown very large variations and fluctuations in data and graphs, but when analyzing these variables from 1980 to the present, then an absolute progression in data is evident toward larger ozone holes, major increases in annual CO2 concentrations from a high of 3 million Square Kilometers in 1980 to 24 million Square Kilometers in 2007, and a 32% extended ozone hole duration between 9 to 19.5 additional days over a period of 10 and 27 years. Due to my latest analysis of severe weather fluctuations in the summer and the winter seasons, this planet could experience an Atmospheric Shift of drastic and worse weather seasons with very hot summers and very cold winters.
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute of the Helmholtz Scientific Association in Germany are now involved in factual climate models pertaining to atmospheric temperature fluctuations, polar vortexes, Arctic Oscillations, Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry and air flow patterns at the Arctic and Antarctic Polar Regions involving complex global climate models by linking the atmosphere, ocean temperatures and ocean currents or gulf streams from satellite and on the ground observations. At this point their research contains still a high level of uncertainty, but will be factored into future climate calculation models. Please see: www.theozonehole.com/stratosphericchemistry.htm.
Increased variations in the cold winter climate causes many people to question global warming and climate change, and dissenters are calling global warming a fraud, without having all the facts, and insufficient basic knowledge about the current and fluctuating weather.
As the world population multiplied during the last 1,000 years, huge, global forested lands have been cut down for building houses, and wood and coal was mainly used for heating and cooking. Gradually the oxygen content decreased and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased accordingly and have been absorbed by the oceans, vegetation and in the atmosphere. Today, the world population consumes vast amounts of fossil fuel and the carbon dioxide from fossil fuel and manufactured airborne chemicals and gases amount to staggering billions of tons of acids annually in the atmosphere, which then cause the destruction of the ozone in the stratosphere. As a result, the ozone layer around the world is becoming thinner and the most drastic effects are shown in the cold arctic pole and Antarctic pole regions, where the carbon dioxide and acids are most active and destructive.
When considering all the climate variables, the continued thinning of the ozone layer, and ocean water evaporation, and present carbon dioxide/chemical emissions, it is difficult to determine at this time if this planet is heading ultimately into a hot desert type planet, or if this planet is then headed into another ice age in the near future. This research involves the thermal functions and temperature fluctuations on an annual basis over a period of time, and calculating the effects of global carbon dioxide and chemical emissions as well as the temperature fluctuations of the gulfstream, jet stream, ocean currents, ocean acidity and water evaporation.
Currently, the water from melted ice from the North Pole and the South Pole are being distributed mostly into the Southern Hemisphere because most of the Earth’s landmass is located in the Northern Hemisphere. This shift in water weight causes the polar axis to shift toward Siberia in Russia by approximately 25 miles per year, which means that the South Pole and the Equator correspondingly shift as well. The melted ice is entering the Atlantic Ocean as relatively warm water, which then has the tendency to reduce the circulation of Gulf Stream and Arctic Oscillation flow stream.
The result of the reduced Gulf Stream circulation flow is that the Atlantic Ocean water becomes warmer which produces more moisture particularly in the hurricane region of the Atlantic Ocean, and the moisture feeds the hurricanes with much greater intensity to cause increased destruction to the United States and nearby countries. The increase in water and weight into the Southern Hemisphere produces the shifting of the polar axis toward Siberia by approximately 25 miles per year. But this is not all, as I explain the on-going Atmospheric Shift in more detail.
The Earth’s surface is covered with many earth plates which have a natural tendency to actively flex and move accordingly to equalize exerted internal pressure (heat) in the form of earth plate subduction, earth quakes, volcanoes, continental drift and earth plate compression. We are seeing a substantial increase in major earthquakes of 4-5 quakes per week in the range of 6.0-6.8 on the Richter scale, and tsunami activity in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, and the Mid-East region, which appear to compensate for the Earth’s generated internal and external pressures.
Due to the increase in water weight into the Southern Hemisphere and the shifting of the poles by as much as 25 miles per year toward Siberia, such drastic movements then explain the weak points of earth plates in the Northern Hemisphere and close to the Equator. The combination of CO2 emissions, climate change, atmospheric shifting of poles could be instrumental in generating catastrophic earthquakes and tsunami’s in much greater magnitude in the future.
Certain physical markers and indicators already point toward a direction that could create a hot, desert type planet as well as the beginning of a new ice age. Major reductions in carbon dioxide could perhaps prevent the severity of these massive temperature fluctuations and Atmospheric Shift, and stabilize the world atmosphere for a habitable future of the human race, but that is wishful thinking in view of our present political arrogance, world economic domination plans, and the plundering of natural resources.
Bio-fuel produces equally large quantities of carbon dioxide, and bio-fuel production will be affected by Global Warming, Atmospheric Shift or Climate Change. As droughts, land degradation and salination are accelerating from present world land abandonment the size of Indiana (37,000 Square Miles) every year, the summer temperatures are expected to move northward several hundred miles in a relatively short time span. The southern region of the former USSR is seriously damaged by centuries of soil erosion and wind erosion. It is estimated that half of Russia’s arable land is now unusable due to wind erosion and land abandonment with no available reserve of cropland. Canada predicts decreasing productivity of cropland, increased soil erosion and diminished sustainable cropland reserves.
This is not a time to place the blame or to condemn the causes for Global Warming, Climate Change and Atmospheric Shift any longer, but we are at a point in history where it becomes necessary to identify and eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions most effectively. Half-way measures will not be an option any longer in view of the current climate disasters caused to the ecology by hurricanes, tornados, floods, droughts, rainfall, thunderstorms, snowstorms, blizzards, high winds, major temperature swings, polar ice melting and rising global ocean water flood levels. NASA scientists, and scientists from the World Glacier Monitoring Service in Zurich stated that Arctic ice is already melting before the winter season is over, and the thinning and melting of glaciers in Alaska, Antarctica and Himalayas has more than doubled between 2004 and 2006.
Carbon Dioxide with other chemical gases are most destructive in the stratosphere at a temperature of minus 108° F. during the cold winter months in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. Carbon Dioxide also causes thinning of the global ozone layer. The Ozone Hole at Antarctica has covered an area of 29.5 million square kilometers, but contract during the summer months.
The acidity of CO2 causes large holes in the Ozone layer at the Arctic and Antarctic Poles, and allows the warmer temperatures to vent into space, and then draws the frigid, cold temperatures from space into the earth atmosphere predominantly during the winter months, and mixes with the atmospheric moisture to produce severe snow storms and winter weather patterns. As the winter season progresses in the Antarctic and the temperatures become colder, then the CO2 acidity forms the ozone hole. As the CO2 progressively destroys the ozone, the ozone hole also becomes progressively larger and forms swirling irregular vortexes caused in part by the venting of warmer temperatures at the hole periphery into space, and the extreme cold temperatures are gushing into our atmosphere from space. As the Earth’s heat is vented into space by the ever enlarging Ozone Hole, then the super cold stream from space plunges onto the Earth’s surface, and is spread by newly formed wind currents over the hemisphere, resulting in major cold weather fluctuations. During this on-going process, the ozone hole is becoming larger, and the effects of severe cold winter temperatures are then evident in the Antarctic and the Arctic, until the equatorial region aligns itself with the sun toward the spring season. The ozone hole now stays open more than double in the last 25 years.
The summer months melt the polar ice, and warm the Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream warmer water alters and reduces the ocean circulation flow pattern and generate more CO2, along with the huge amount of CO2 produced from melting permafrost, tundra and peat bogs (1/4 size of the entire Northern Hemisphere). The global ozone layer has become thinner and its effects are that the sun rays are less defused and more readily penetrate onto the earth=s surface, which then are the cause of warmer summer temperatures in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, and then result in more droughts, hurricanes and changes in global weather patterns.
The thinner ozone layer allows the sun rays to produce more heat during summer months, but the extreme cold from space does not penetrate the global ozone layer entirely, and the ozone layer still provides a barrier and shield. It is most important to know when the thin ozone layer thickness and larger ozone holes start to cool this planet, and at what point this could produce a new ice age.
At this time we are experiencing a gradual but definite atmospheric shift which obviously indicates that this planet is adjusting in a weight balancing process while trying to maintain the present rotational cycle. The present atmospheric shift and climate change does not indicate any signs of immediate catastrophic polar reversal activity. But, large amounts of increased water weight upon the earth plates in the Southern Hemisphere could exert more pressure upon the weak points of earth plates in the Northern Hemisphere, and could result into major or very large earthquakes in various regions of this planet. This is extremely difficult to estimate, but it would be most beneficial to maintain or reduce any adverse changes in the global weather patterns. All universities in all countries are asked to conduct global geophysical research in their science curriculum in this very important subject.
This explains why we have major global weather fluctuations during the summer and during the winter seasons. The next obvious question is: How long will Global Warming or the Atmospheric Shift last? Will this planet become warmer or colder, when, and to what extend will this climate change occur in the near future, or in the next 40 years? If and when the ozone layer becomes very thin, then the cold temperatures from space will cool down our atmosphere, and could bring about a new ice age. Then how much time do we have to make some meaningful changes and adjustments? What technology has to be developed and marketed worldwide, and at what costs?
Unfortunately, Global Warming and Atmospheric Shift conditions are much faster accelerating than expected by most researchers and scientists. Research satellites over the Earth’s poles provide valuable information of current and future atmospheric conditions, but a complete overview of Global Warming and Atmospheric Shift is necessary at this time, and time is of the essence, before Global Warming and Climate Change become an unmanageable world crisis.
It now becomes obvious that everybody and all businesses take an interest in a concerted effort to resolve global warming, climate change and a replacement for oil/fossil fuel, or otherwise an unprecedented economic downturn on a global scale is possible. To rely on high profit oriented corporations to produce meaningful Climate Change Technology would only produce inadequacy. This has been my experience, and by no means should this be allowed to occur. My website shows and describes the best products that would be most effective to mitigate Global Warming, Atmospheric Shift and Climate Change, and replace oil and fossil fuel at the same time.
A previous employer abolished their entire maintenance program for expensive machinery of 24/7 productivity in order to maximize profits. Whenever this sophisticated plant machinery would break down, then all plant production personnel were sent home and emergency repairs had to be made which could last 3-7 days. This employer would consistently violate air pollution laws and rather pay large fines rather than to make plant remediation.
Today we see our US government buying approximately $700 billion of worthless credit derivative market accounts involving banks, financial institutions, investment houses, insurers and hedge funds. From where is approx. $2 trillion going to come from? Printing more money would cause devaluation of the dollar, and borrowing money from foreign countries at regular interest rates which then is dispersed as loans and investment funds to the housing market and commercial businesses at regular interest rates could have major economic repercussions. If this financial bailout is not conducted responsively, it can be catastrophic and bring on an economic depression.
If our government would have functioned as required by law, then we would not have had any of our present energy problems, climate change, economic crisis, Viet Nam War, Iraq War, the $630 billion annual defense budget, and national social disintegration. As evidence, I request that all persons read and fully comprehend my repeated disclosures, documentation to the government, and the implications my products could have produced during the time period from the 1960’s to 2008. Please see my website as shown on www.MZ-Energy.com. My website shows and describes the best products that would b e most effective to mitigate Global Warming, Atmospheric Shift and replace oil and fossil fuel at the same time, national debts, et cetera.
Global Warming and Fossil Fuel Depletion is misunderstood and denigrated by a large portion of the government and corporations because such investments would reduce corporate gains and profits. The development and use of new
hydrogen energy regeneration systems for most energy applications can create a very prosperous new, global human era. For additional information on energy, global warming and climate change, please see: www.MZ-Energy.com
2. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY
2008 WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK (Nov. 13, 2008)
The International Energy Agency (IEA) calls for a global energy revolution. Current trends in energy supply and consumption are patently unsustainable – environmentally, economically and socially – they can and must be altered.
Oil fields have to be found by 2030 equivalent to the output of four (4) Saudi Arabia just to maintain present levels of supply and consumption. The energy demand (annual 1.6%) or 45% by 2030 is estimated to cost $26.3 trillion. Oil companies are facing “dwindling opportunities to increase reserves and production. The era of cheap oil is over.” The projected 45% increase in CO2 emissions from 28 gigatons amount to 41 gigatons by 2030. Renewable energy investments require an additional $4.1 trillion by 2030. CO2 emissions would have to reach no higher than 26 gigatons (450 ppm) and cost an additional $9.3 trillion (0.6% of annual world GDP).
IEA estimates 1.3 trillion barrels of proven reserves to keep the planet going for 40 years at current consumption, with additional recoverable conventional reserves of three (3) trillion barrels. Global consumption is projected to rise from 85 million bpd in 2007 to 106 million bpd in 2030. The report estimates two (2) trillion barrels of extra heavy oil and bitumen may be technically recoverable, mostly from Canada and Venezuela. There is no guarantee those resources will be exploited quickly enough.
Per IEA, with no oil investments to raise production, the natural rate of output decline is 9.1%. An annual oil investment of $360 billion are required for China, India and developing countries until 2030 to maintain annual production decline of 6.4%.
The IEA 2008 World Energy Outlook contains much the same information as I have previously disclosed. Opec and oil producing countries still refuse to disclose their oil reserves, obviously because they do not know themselves of how much oil is left in the ground and also of how much oil is actually recoverable. This is an alarming energy supply situation. Recently a member of Opec stated that if countries do not like their high oil prices, then people can either walk or ride bicycles.
3. FOSSIL FUEL DEPLETION / GLOBAL OIL RESERVES
Due to high oil prices, the USA oil demand fell by 3.5%, and reduced consumption by 700,000 bpd in July, 2008. The International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris up to now was only concerned about world oil demand, and now plans to conduct research and release a report on world oil supply and oil availability in November, 2008. This is very late, as oil has already reached over $145 per barrel, but the oil supply/depletion data and oil field capacities are a closely guarded secret by the supplier countries. On 18 April, 2007, energy consultants HIS disclosed up to 100 billion barrels of oil remained to be discovered in Western Iraq. On 23 April, 2007, the US Geological Survey estimated Iraq’s undiscovered oil as 0.5 billion barrels at 95% probability and 1.6 billion at 50% probability. This region was explored decades ago, and wild speculators are at work, who are hungry for foolish investors.
A report on May 29, 2008 about Mr. Sadad Al-Husseini, a former top executive of Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia’s state-owned oil company alleges: Oil producing countries are inflating the size of their oil reserves by as much as 300 billion barrels by padding supposedly proven reserves with “probable” reserves and tar and oil sands. That, he said, has prompted speculation that global oil reserves may be over twice current estimates. Such hypothetical reserves are “not delineated, not accessible and not available for production, Husseini said at a recent energy conference in London. Oil companies mix proven finds with probable reserves that may have only a 50% chance of getting out of the ground, and also count “unconventional hydrocarbons, inaccessible oil accumulations and unconfirmed recoveries, none of which fit the current definitions of proven or probable reserves.”
Take the 140 billion barrels of Canadian bitumen that’s regularly reported as proven oil reserves. In reality, Husseini alleged, only a small fraction of that will be converted to useful fuels. Adding to the confusion, the U.S. Geological Survey and others have mixed up reserves with resources, combining proven and probable fields with speculative, undiscovered hydrocarbons. Oil production has now reached its peak and will begin dropping in 15 years or less, earlier than most other experts predict.
Proven reserves have a 90%-95% certainty of entering production, probable reserves have a 50% probability, and possible reserves have a 5%-10% chance for production. According to Al-Husseini, 300 billion of the world’s oil reserves should be categorized as speculative, while Saudi Arabia has been pumping approximately 58 billion barrels of oil in the last 20 years without showing any depletion of their oil reserves.
The Saudi Arabia Petroleum and Minerals Minister Ali Ibrahim al-Naimi stated on May 2, 2006 at the Center for Strategic & International Studies Forum in Washington, D.C.: “I believe there are at least 14 trillion barrels of reserves left, 7 trillion of which are conventional, with advancing technology, we’ll produce more of it.”
Bloomberg reports on July 5, 2008 – Madrid: “The world has as much as five trillion to seven trillion barrels of oil yet to be developed, located in “challenging” areas or acreage closed to exploration, Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi said. “How many times do I have to tell you, prices have nothing to do with supply and demand,” Ali said.
Somehow over a brief period of 1 year, 7 trillion barrels of global oil mysteriously vanished without any specific explanation, and the Oil Minister of Saudi Arabia cannot be taken seriously any longer. The oil industry, USA government and global news media totally failed to challenge the Saudi Oil Minister on his rant of 5-7 trillion global oil deposits or locations, and the lack of oil exploration investments amid staggering worldwide oil profits. This is truly mindboggling and stupendous during a time of energy wars and the control over global natural resources, while untold human beings are being starved and untold innocent blood will be needlessly spilled for the sake of huge oil profits.
Professor Paul Stevens, Sr. Research Fellow for Energy at Chatham House, Britain’s top think tank and top expert on the oil industry discloses: An oil supply crunch in or around 2013, when the price of oil could soar to $200 per barrel, inadequate investments by international oil companies, adoption of ‘value-based management’ as a financial strategy to maintain high oil prices by paying shareholders high returns on investments. “Increasingly, this is motivated by the view that oil in the ground is worth more than money in the bank,” Stevens maintains. Many oil producer countries enter into ‘resource nationalism,’ and exports are diminished by rising domestic oil consumption and population growth.
Instead of developing over 10,000 oil leases with 68 million acres that already have been leased by the oil companies, the oil companies demand additional millions of acres of leases. These government oil leases are not leases at all. A lease is a contract for a specific limited term, but these oil leases have been on the books for over 20 years, but are supposed to be valid for only 10 years. The oil companies are listing unexplored leases as valid assets without exploring these leases. This is typical of the oil companies, and this is simply fraudulent.
In 2005, the 6 largest oil companies invested $54 billion for exploration, drilling and technology, but returned $71 billion to their shareholders, and more than 1 million employees were terminated in the last 2 decades. Saudi Arabia could not deliver “The Khursaniyah Project” at the end of 2007, but is expected in mid-2009, with widespread delays for the majority of its upstream program. Political uncertainties, diminished production, surging global demand, and non-Opec production is either stagnant or in decline, and not supplying the global demand. The Kashagan field in Kazakhstan was supposed to produce 1.5 million bpd in 2009, but due to technical problems is delayed to 2013 with high cost overruns.
We lose just over 4 mbpd per year for depletion and demand has been increasing about 1.5 mbpd per year. In order to add 15 mbpd of production by 2012 we need to find and produce nearly 30 mbpd of new oil just to offset depletion and this new demand. Very high oil and gasoline prices will substantially reduce the $700 billion oil imports, but will also produce substantial economic losses, the reduction of imported goods and fewer jobs.
My proposed Hydrogen and Hydrogen Energy Regeneration System and Processes could circumvent many painful, inevitable events, provided that this nation starts to recognize the seriousness of the global fossil fuel energy crisis, and act in unison accordingly to establish a new era in abundant and affordable global energy supply. Hydrogen Energy is too important and has to be produced as inexpensive as possible, in order for the global population to survive, and to develop a promising future. Obviously, when international politics and controls, and other limitations are imposed on Hydrogen Energy Regeneration Systems and Processes, then the potential of a promising global future is cancelled.
This has been already my experience for more than 40 years. Due to the prevailing energy crisis, poor economy and dismal energy technology, it was necessary for me to disclose present conditions. I could have made very superfluous and glowing statements pertaining to Hydrogen Energy Regeneration and extolled a very promising future for this planet. Believe me, there are many external obstacles to overcome from our government, industry leaders and a portion of our population.
For more information on Global Warming/Climate Change, Fossil Fuel Depletion and Hydrogen Energy Regeneration, please see: www.MZ-Energy.com. Publication is authorized with my name.
4. HYDROGEN ENERGY REGENERATION
Hydrogen Energy and Hydrogen Regeneration processes are the only available global energy sources in adequate quantities and volume to replace diminishing oil and fossil fuel. Hydrogen obtained from the oceans, combined with hydrogen regeneration processes can provide adequate energy supply for most global energy needs for many centuries, and for a very promising future for the entire human race.
Presently, wars are being fought over natural resources and over oil/fossil fuel. Hydrogen is a chemical element that cannot be consumed, destroyed or used up, and can be regenerated. Hydrogen is the lightest gas and is the principle combustible component in oil, gasoline, natural gas, all fossil fuels, and exists in the oceans in quantities of nearly 11%, and 10% in fresh water. Decaying vegetation and decaying vertebrates on the ocean floor and land surfaces constantly produce an abundance of hydrogen and escape into the atmosphere every day.
Combining hydrogen with oxygen becomes a combustible mixture, resulting in energy such as in gasoline and natural gas. Compressed hydrogen is very combustible and explosive, particularly when combined with other chemical reaction elements and chemical reaction components. This hydrogen research involves atoms, molecules, isotopes and formulas for various types of requirements and applications. When highly combustible energy is released in excess of the required energy application, then the excess energy can be utilized for regenerating the chemical reaction components for recycling in a continuous closed loop system. Obviously the chemical composition of components would need to be easily combined (association) as well as in a separation (dissociation) process for recycling.
It is not required to obtain total or 100% separation or dissociation from the composition of chemical elements and components in the closed loop system, because a relatively small amount of contamination can be continuously disposed of during the regeneration process and discharged for further recycling later, without affecting the energy output, and by maintaining a generous amount of chemical reaction components to supply and feed the closed loop combustion process. Depending upon the chemical reaction of elements and component formulas and composition properties, the number of recycling and regeneration requires extensive research and testing for all energy applications such as electric power plants, chemical plants, cement plants, ships, factories, hospitals, schools, trucks, automobiles, et cetera.
Further details are omitted on account that my research is meant to replace depleting fossil fuel, to reduce massive global energy exploitation, and to provide an abundance of energy and a promising future for future global generations. With the active participation of everyone, we can enter a new era and future. Therefore, my research is proprietary and contains intellectual property. My assessment of other energy resources are meant to be objective and portray a more realistic view of existing energy conditions without being overly critical, until proven otherwise. Understandably all combined alternative energy resources are not adequate to replace oil, except hydrogen.
Fuel cells have been researched by the Dept. of Energy and by a number of prominent companies since the 1970’s. A research engineer then told me the conversion from natural gas into hydrogen produced negative energy, and this government funded corporation went out of business many years ago. A fuel cell design engineer informed me in 1999 that fuel cell research is not able to develop a workable product with reformulated natural gas.
Then the automobile industry believed fuel cells could produce adequate hydrogen by reprocessing natural gas, resulting into excess energy. But obviously that proved to be impossible, and natural gas is a finite fossil fuel. Natural gas is in relatively short supply for future energy needs, and produces CO2 emissions. The auto industry now has embarked on adding hydrogen into fuel cells, and the hydrogen is exhausted into the atmosphere after the combustion or reaction. This is not a viable or sensible energy process for replacing fossil fuel on a global scale.
Without using a little common sense, many Western Countries jumped into the bio-fuel business for an alternative to fossil fuel. Now bio-fuel has been proven to be a large emitter of CO2, because all vegetation, plants and trees are carbon based. Corn production is supposed to produce a large amount of ethanol fuel, and 1 acre of corn produces 5-7 barrels of oil, while 1 acre of oil shale produces 100,000 to 1 million barrels of oil according to an estimate. Bio-fuel reduces valuable food production acreage, and global warming is expected to reduce arable agricultural land even further.
Now the latest scheme is solar energy and wind energy. The overall future global energy requirements are of such magnitude, that solar and wind cannot possibly replace existing fossil fuel, or meet future global energy needs. Electricity is not able to provide adequate energy for cars, the transportation and trucking industry according to my analysis in 1964.
The present nationwide electric power grid is totally inadequate, and would have to be rebuilt at unbelievable costs. An oversupply of electricity has to be produced and has to be available around the clock in addition to demands of power surges for summer air conditioning, or otherwise massive power blackouts could occur on the nationwide power grid. To rely on the railroads for long distance transportation has various economic disadvantages.
Then there are others who advocate as a last resort nuclear power. Uranium ore is finite and in relatively short supply to produce only electricity, and is not an alternative for oil or fossil fuel, even when radiation emissions could be mostly contained. Nuclear waste remains a costly problem, and there are long-term safety problems.
Nuclear power plants are not economical or cost efficient, because a typical nuclear power plant investment is paid off in 15 years before producing any profit with limited plant operating life. Unless the radiation emissions are contained, nuclear power has little or no energy advantages for generating electricity, or to meet future energy needs.
The great US coal deposit statistics include estimations, unverified coal deposits, and coal deposits that are uneconomical for mining and mechanized production. The coal deposits are classified as Recoverable Reserves, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, Demonstrated Reserves and Identified Reserves and Undiscovered Reserves. Unfortunately, industries and companies generate claims of false resource data and values to entice investors. Very large coal deposits exist in the United States (273 billion tons), and the coal is mostly used in powdered (micronized) form for electric power plants and cement plants, chemicals and for fertilizer.
These US coal deposit estimates do include hypothetical or inferred estimates of too thin, too deep, or too impure to mine these coal reserves. Coal is classified into various grades of heat (Btu) content as Anthracite, Bituminous, Sub-bituminous and Lignite containing sulfur, ash and noxious gases, and produce emissions of mercury, SOx, NOx, and particulate matter. Surface mining is the most desirable mining process, but coal contains many impurities that produce harmful air pollution. Coal produces air pollution and large amounts of CO2 emissions. The CO2 emissions can be controlled very effectively perhaps to 85%-95%, but this is expensive.
The best disposal of CO2 would be to convert CO2, and then sell it as fertilizer. The government and several companies spent over $10 billion on coal gasification, but have abandoned these projects for being inefficient and resulting in negative energy production. The conversion of all coal reserves into oil for US energy consumption has been estimated to produce only 20-25 years of energy because of low coal energy content (BTU) and other factors. The USA and Global Economy is based on continuous economic growth, population growth, and further expansion. Therefore, the supply of global energy as well as natural resources has to be equal or more than the actual demand, or otherwise a decline in the global economy occurs.
Oil shale deposits cover a surface area of 16,000 square miles and contain an estimated 1.23 to 1.8 trillion barrels of oil. An estimate claims that 1 acre of oil shale = 100,000 to 1 million barrels of oil. Tar sand deposits exist in very large quantities in the USA and estimates are between 12 to 19 billion barrels of oil. These are indeed tremendous energy deposits. Large tar sand deposits are located in Orinoco, Venezuela (1.8 Gb) and in Athabasca, Canada (1.7Gb). But, these deposits have to be calculated in terms of economical mining, extraction and processing, because large areas have very thin seams of oil shale and tar sands.
Thin seams of oil shale and tar sands are not worth the overall expended energy to produce small amounts of oil. Other factors are the depth of deposits with large areas being 1,000 feet to 6,000 feet below the surface, including the lack of water supply in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming. To produce 1 gallon of oil, 2-5 gallons of water are required. Canada’s oil sands contain contaminants of sulfur and carbon that are difficult to extract and also leave highly toxic tailings. Several reports state that various environmental and pollution problems prohibit the mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands. Shell Oil’s in-situ retorting and processing of oil shale is very expensive and problematic.
The amount of mining, processing and overall production is work intensive and limits the output of large scale oil production to make a dent in the required national energy supply and energy demands, as has already been shown after years of research by the oil industry. Unfortunately the US government is primarily resorting to inadequate alternative energy sources such as wind and solar for producing only electricity, which then cause economic deterioration combined with deficits and further financial complications. To date all combined energy schemes for acquiring sufficient energy resources to replace fossil fuel are insufficient to meet future requirements.
The only energy source to replace fossil fuel is hydrogen processed from the oceans (11%) with my proposed hydrogen regeneration process and systems, as previously stated. In order to minimize the effects of impending global climate change crisis, energy crisis, and economic crisis, I suggest that federal funding be allocated on a high priority basis for a R&D Fast Track 24/7 Schedule for my Gasoline Vaporization System, Hydrogen Energy Regeneration, elimination of CO2 and Air Pollution from Coal Fired Electric Power Plants, and Vacuum Chamber Concrete Housing Panels for Homes and Buildings. For additional information on energy, global warming and climate change please see: www.MZ-Energy.com
By Manfred Zysk, M.E.