The journal “Nature” recently reported that the particle-detecting PAMELA satellite (of Italy, Russia, Germany, and Sweden, launched in June two years ago) had detected an unexpected surplus of high-energy positively-charged particles whizzing through space. The article points out that these particles are either high-energy protons or high-energy positrons and that PAMELA’s single detector is not capable of determining which one it is. PAMELA is an acronym for, “Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics.”
The PAMELA researchers believe the detected positively-charged particles may be high-energy positrons created by theoretical collision-annihilation of theoretical proton-free cold dark matter WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles).
Alternatively, based upon the large number of relativistic cosmic ray protons penetrating Earth’s atmosphere every day and the logical power of Occam’s razor, Bell Labs-trained scientist Jerome Drexler posits that the vast majority of the detected positively-charged particles may be relativistic-proton stragglers from relativistic-proton dark matter orbiting the Milky Way.
The scientific principle called Occam’s razor, can be used to help determine whether the PAMELA-detected positive particles are high-energy positrons or straggler protons from the dark matter halo surrounding the Milky Way, by means of a logical competition between the two theories. Note that in the acronym PAMELA, “antimatter” could be fast positrons and the term “Light-nuclei Astrophysics” could mean fast straggler protons. Occam’s razor logic can be utilized to select the more probable theory, as follows:
In the 14th century, an English logician, William of Ockham, devised the principle now called Occam’s or Ockham’s razor logic. This scientific and philosophic principle states that the explanation of any observed phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible. That is, the favored explanation of unknown phenomena is the simplest of the competing theories.
In the 17th-18th century time frame, British physicist/mathematician/astronomer Sir Issac Newton’s version of Occam’s razor reads, “We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.” In the 20th century, Albert Einstein was more succinct when, referring to new theories, he said, ” Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.”
Since dark matter represents about 83 percent of the mass of the universe, it should have explanations, relationships, or at least compatibilities with many of the observed 13 fundamental astronomical phenomena. Drexler then tries to utilize the above-mentioned theoretical proton-free cold dark matter WIMPs to seek any explanations, relationships, or compatibilities with the 13 fundamental astronomical phenomena, but finds that cold dark matter’s nature is so vague it would require too many assumptions to achieve this.
On the other hand, in Chapter 28, Drexler tests the compatibility of his relativistic- proton dark matter with the same 13 independent astronomical observations fundamental to Big Bang cosmology and finds essentially universal compatibility. Moreover, Drexler’s dark matter candidate appears to offer explanations for or have relationships with the vast majority of the 13 fundamental astronomical phenomena. Therefore, Drexler’s dark matter candidate has in essence been crowned dark matter winner by Occam’s razor logic, until such time that another dark matter candidate wins a future Occam’s razor competition. (Note that if the average relativistic mass of the dark matter protons is high enough, the actual number of dark matter protons in the universe need not exceed the number of ordinary matter protons.)
Drexler’s astro-cosmology books have been most successful in the United Kingdom; the land of William of Ockham , Sir Issac Newton, and that of Professor Michael J. Disney of the School of Physics and Astronomy at Cardiff University. Chapter 26 of the book is devoted to Professor Disney’s critique of the theoretical cold dark matter’s unsatisfactory role in Big Bang cosmology. It is titled, “British Professor Elegantly Questions Validity of Cold Dark Matter Hypothesis”. Thus, Chapters 26-28 explain how and why Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter won the Occam’s razor dark matter competition.
On August 20, 2008, the “NASA Hubble Space Telescope Daily Report #4678”, reported on “A Dark Core in Abell 520”, as follows: “the [cold] dark matter peak without galaxies cannot be easily explained within the current collisionless [cold] dark matter paradigm.” That is true, however Drexler’s warm dark matter paradigm, with its inherent top-down theory of galaxy formation, easily explains it.
Now, let us return to the August 13 Nature article and the PAMELA dilemma. Were the detected particles primarily high energy positrons from cold dark matter WIMP collision- annihilation or high energy straggler protons from Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter? As indicated above, the straggler protons seem to be the favored choice since the Occam’s razor contest favors the existence of Drexler’s dark matter over cold dark matter WIMPs and so does the August 20, NASA Hubble Space Telescope Daily Report #4678. Furthermore, mainstream cosmologists have long claimed that WIMPs are collisionless, which undermines any WIMP-collision-annihilation theory for creating a large number of positrons.
Drexler’s March 2008 book, “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology,” is already cataloged in the libraries of Harvard, Yale, Cornell, University of Groningen, Sam Houston State University, and the U.S. Naval Observatory. Drexler’s books are available through Amazon.com and BarnesandNoble.com. Drexler’s May 2006 book, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos,” which plausibly solves at least 15 cosmic enigmas, is cataloged and available in over 40 astronomy and physics libraries around the world. They include libraries at Harvard, Stanford, Yale, UC Berkeley, Cornell, Harvard-Smithsonian, Vassar, and the universities of Hawaii, Toronto, Illinois, Edinburgh, Hamburg, Groningen, Copenhagen, Chile, Bologna, Helsinki, Lisbon, Guadalajara, Kyoto, and the Max-Planck-Institut for Astrophysik.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR OF THE THREE BOOKS: