LOS ALTOS HILLS, Calif.-“How inflation happened a split second after the Big Bang.” “Identify the exact sources of these cosmic rays and how they accelerate particles.” Two different Nobel Laureates raised these two unrelated queries in cosmology publicly in November and December 2007. The timing of these queries is close to the fourth anniversary of a postmodern Big Bang cosmology theory published Dec. 15, 2003, in a cosmology book, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun,” authored by Jerome Drexler.
There is the possibility that plausible answers or helpful responses to both of these queries can be derived from a recent cosmology paper utilizing Drexler’s dark matter theory and Big Bang cosmology. The paper was posted on the physics arXiv on Feb. 15, 2007 as e-print No. physics/0702132. It is titled, “A Relativistic-Proton Dark Matter Would Be Evidence the Big Bang Probably Satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics.”
The paper argues that the Big Bang, which occurred at the beginning of time, must have satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Thus, immediately after the Big Bang the entropy of the universe would be at the lowest level it would reach throughout all time. Therefore, the Big Bang should not be characterized, as it has been for over 40 years, as a chaotic fireball explosion associated with a high level of disorder and high entropy.
The very low entropy could be achieved by the Big Bang firing out, in all directions, high-velocity ultra-high-energy (UHE) relativistic protons and helium nuclei in the well-known ratio of 12 to 1. A very high percentage of their energies would be available to do work since their entropy, a measure of the percentage of their energy unavailable to do work, would be very low. Such a Big Bang, characterized by a dispersion of UHE relativistic nuclei, would be highly efficient and could create very high usable energy and very low entropy, and might be designated a Relativistic Big Bang. This concept is fundamental to Drexler’s dark matter theory and his postmodern Big Bang cosmology.
The relativistic Big Bang would have the protons and helium nuclei being fired out at near the speed of light in a purely radial outward direction for a short-time first phase, followed by a second phase during which the magnetic field deflections and electric-charge repulsion of the particles would impart a transverse motion and angular momentum to the particles, thereby greatly reducing their radial outward velocities.
The Cosmic Inflation period could be related to the extremely short-time first phase of purely radial outward motion of the relativistic protons and helium nuclei beginning a split-second after the Big Bang created them.
Hopefully, this presentation will be considered a plausible answer or helpful response to the query about cosmic “inflation.”
Now let us consider the query about cosmic rays, “identify the exact sources of these cosmic rays and how they accelerate these particles.” The astronomical data used to arrive at answers to this two-part cosmic-ray query will be taken from the reports of the Pierre Auger collaboration, an international project involving 370 scientists and engineers from 17 countries. They announced on Nov. 8 the significant discovery of 27 Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) protons with energies higher than 57EeV.
These are extremely rare events requiring a relativistic-proton detection system the size of Rhode Island.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics required that the Big Bang, while creating the universe’s mass and energy, generate most of the mass in the form of relativistic protons and helium nuclei in order to minimize the entropy of the universe at the beginning of time.
From the generally accepted Big Bang temperatures, some proton energies might have been at energy levels between 1 million EeV to10 million EeV. Over the subsequent 13.7 billion years, the so-called GZK proton-energy-loss effect (explained later) could diminish these proton energies by a factor of 100,000, yet would still permit the arrival at Earth of a small percentage of 10 EeV to 100 EeV UHE cosmic ray protons.
The author, Jerome Drexler, believes that the recent Auger collaboration discovery of the higher-than 57 EeV cosmic ray protons probably represents the energy-diminished Big Bang relativistic protons that over billions of years as stragglers in space finally found a home orbiting several to tens of galaxies. Later, they were deflected and ejected from their long-term steady-state orbital paths, around several to tens of spiral galaxies, by transient magnetic field shocks brought about by the merging of two galaxy clusters.
It should be noted that the GZK proton-energy-loss effect pertains to energy losses from pion production by single protons interacting with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons that limit cosmic ray travel of protons with energies of 60 EeV or more to 300 million light years. (Until recently, 163 million light years was used as the limit.) In that situation the effective CMB photon density far exceeds the proton density. However, when high-flow-level proton streams are orbiting groups of spiral galaxies in dark matter halos the outer layer protons can shield the inner proton flows from the CMB photons and thus from the GZK loss effect. This weakening of the GZK loss effect should occur when the effective proton density is a substantial fraction the effective CMB photon density.
Also, the terms “GZK cutoff” and “GZK limit” are misleading. The terms imply 60 EeV UHECRs are capable of traveling only about 300 million light years through space, but in actuality that “limit” probably represents only a very large percentage decline for the very highest energy UHECRs and a very much smaller percentage decline for the lowest energy UHECRs.
Hopefully, this presentation will be considered a plausible answer or helpful response to the query about cosmic rays.
For more information beyond the earlier referenced physics arXiv cosmology paper, see AScribe newswire dated Nov. 26, 2007 entitled, “Auger Collaboration Probably Detected Big-Bang-Created UHECR Protons after Their Ejection by Merging Galaxy Clusters.” Also, see Chapter 47 of Drexler’s May 2006 book, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos.”
When it was discovered that Drexler’s dark matter theory and postmodern Big Bang cosmology were able to solve more than 15 unsolved cosmic mysteries during the years 2004-2005, Drexler authored the book sequel entitled, “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos: Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics.” The book further developed the cosmology theory and described and explained solutions to the more than 15 enigmas.
This book is now cataloged and available in over 40 astronomy or physics libraries around the world including libraries at Harvard, Stanford, Yale, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, Cornell, Harvard-Smithsonian, Vassar, and the universities of Hawaii, Toronto, Illinois, Edinburgh, Hamburg, Goettingen, Groningen, Copenhagen, Chile, Bologna, Helsinki, Lisbon, Guadalajara, and Kyoto, and the Max-Planck-Institut for Astrophysik.
Drexler, the author of the book, entered the race to identify dark matter in 2002, by utilizing Albert Einstein’s 1905 Special Theory of Relativity, Claude Shannon’s information theory, Johannes Kepler’s 400-year-old idea of re-analyzing the astronomical data of others, Occam’s (Ockham’s) razor logic of the 14th century and Drexler’s own 50- year career in applied physics research, invention and innovation that began with seven years at Bell Laboratories.