LOS ALTOS HILLS, Calif., August 21 – The 2006 Shaw Prize in Astronomy and the 2007 Gruber Cosmology Prize were awarded for the amazing discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe, but the cause of this phenomenon is still considered a mystery. To date, the following is the only plausible explanation for this mystery that has been publicly proposed.
Observed galaxy clusters are rushing apart faster and faster thereby accelerating the expansion of the universe. If the galaxies and the stars were similarly rushing apart faster and faster, then the hypothetical concept of “dark energy” pervading all space might be valid. But this isn’t the case.
The galaxy clusters are indeed rushing apart as their separation velocities are accelerating, but the separation velocities of the galaxies and of the stars are not known to be accelerating. If the hypothetical pervasive “dark energy” actually existed, all three of these types of celestial bodies would be subject to it and the galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars, not just one of them, would be rushing apart faster and faster.
In an expanding universe, galaxy clusters are moving away from one another. When the galaxy-cluster separation velocities speed up, as in our universe, the universe is in an accelerating expansion mode. Since 1998, this has been attributed to “dark energy”, called “the most profound mystery in all of science” by University of Chicago cosmologist Michael Turner.
In that year, two completed studies led by Saul Perlmutter, of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and by Brian Schmidt of the Australian National University, of astronomical events involving exploding stars (supernovae) led to the award-winning discovery that the expansion of the universe was accelerating. The cause was attributed to “dark energy”, a hypothetical form of energy assumed to permeate all space and to have negative pressure resulting in a repulsive gravitational force.
In 2001, Michael Turner essentially removed the word “all” from this definition when he wrote, “Dark energy by its very nature is diffuse and a low-energy phenomenon. It probably cannot be produced at accelerators; it isn’t found in galaxies or even clusters of galaxies.”
Astro-cosmology author Jerome Drexler has based his accelerating-expansion theory upon Michael Turner’s statement, “it isn’t found in galaxies or even clusters of galaxies.” That is, Drexler’s criteria for the mysterious repulsive force are: it pushes galaxy clusters apart, but it doesn’t push stars apart and it doesn’t push galaxies apart.
Drexler’s theory explains that, in a first phase, galaxy clusters, filled with relativistic dark matter protons, are separating from each other with velocities proportional to their separations. Then, when galaxy clusters’ relativistic dark matter protons erode relativistic mass at a high-enough rate, via radiation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-ray photons, the separation velocities of galaxy clusters will increase owing to a reduction in the gravitational attraction between them and owing to the Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum.
This increases cluster-to-cluster separation and further lowers the gravitational attraction between galaxy clusters, thereby further accelerating both galaxy cluster separation and the expansion of the universe. The force causing this accelerating separation of galaxy clusters is essentially only between galaxy clusters, not between galaxies, or between stars, as will be explained. After a five-year analysis and interpretation of astronomical data, Drexler has concluded that dark matter is comprised of relativistic protons, with a relativistic mass up to ten billion times the mass of a proton at rest, accompanied by relativistic helium nuclei in a ratio of 12 to 1. This is compatible with a recent scientific paper, “Missing Mass in Collisional Debris from Galaxies” in the May 25, 2007 issue of Science Magazine, which concludes, “The most natural [dark matter] candidate is molecular hydrogen in some hard-to-trace form.” (Note that relativistic protons are “hydrogen in some hard-to-trace form.”)
The extragalactic magnetic fields cause the charged dark matter protons to remain within galaxy clusters and to emit radiant energy in the form of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), soft X-ray, or infrared photons.
This is called synchrotron radiation, which is photon emission from a proton in its direction of motion. Since protons in a galaxy cluster are orbiting groups of galaxies, such radiation from a galaxy cluster should be relatively isotropic with respect to the galaxy cluster’s linear motion. Such dark matter protons in galaxy clusters would be emitting relatively high power synchrotron radiation, causing them to lose kinetic energy and relativistic mass continuously, as if their relativistic mass were eroding.
How can synchrotron radiation push galaxy clusters apart without pushing galaxies apart? First of all, the power of synchrotron radiation from a relativistic proton moving across a magnetic field is directly proportional to the square of the proton’s energy. Secondly, the energies estimated for the dark matter protons orbiting groups of galaxies within a typical galaxy cluster would be about 30 times higher than the energies calculated for the dark matter halo protons orbiting a single spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way.
Thus, the synchrotron radiation power per proton and relativistic mass loss rate per proton are about 900 times greater for pushing galaxy clusters apart than for pushing galaxies apart.
Another question is why the accelerating expansion did not begin until about six billion years ago, as reported by astronomers. Perhaps prior to that time the much smaller separations of galaxy clusters led to a very much higher gravitational attraction that minimized the synchrotron-radiation repulsive effect. Note that in the past 13.4 billion years galaxy-cluster separation distances have grown linearly by a factor of the order of 1000.
Drexler’s theories for dark matter and accelerating expansion could be tested by NASA in 2008 when the Hubble telescope’s UV sensitivity is increased by a factor of 30. The detection of EUV/UV photons or soft X-rays from dark matter of our Local Group galaxy cluster, along with no such emission from the Milky Way’s halo could confirm or support Drexler’s theories. This is because calculations indicate that synchrotron radiation from the Milky Way’s dark matter halo should have a broad peak in the infrared while synchrotron radiation from the other dark matter particles in galaxy clusters should have a broad peak in the EUV or soft X-ray region.
Drexler authored “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos,” published May 2006 and “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun,” published December 2003, which explain and support the relativistic dark matter theory and cosmology. They are sold by Universal Publishers, Amazon.com, Barnes&Noble.com and other booksellers. The 2006 book is now available in over 35 astronomy or physics university libraries or astronomical observatory libraries around the world.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Jerome Drexler is a former NJIT Research Professor in physics at New Jersey Institute of Technology, founder, former Chairman and chief scientist of LaserCard Corp. (Nasdaq: LCRD), and former Member of the Technical Staff of Bell Laboratories. He has been granted 76 U.S. patents, honorary Doctor of Science degrees from NJIT and Upsala College, a degree of Honorary Fellow of the Technion, an Alfred P.Sloan Fellowship at Stanford University, a three-year Bell Labs graduate study fellowship, the 1990 “Inventor of the Year Award” for Silicon Valley, recognition as the inventor of the familiar “Laser Optical Storage System,” and membership on the NJIT Board of Overseers.