Bell Labs-trained Jerome Drexler has written three astro-cosmology books providing overwhelming evidence that the dark matter of the universe is comprised primarily of relativistic protons orbiting galaxies and groups of galaxies. Thus, a galaxy group containing ten large galaxies would be filled with swarms of relativistic protons with the lowest energy ones orbiting a single galaxy and the higher energy protons orbiting three, six, and even all ten of the galaxies.
The radius of a proton orbital path is called a Larmor Radius, which is directly proportional to the proton’s energy and inversely to the orthogonal (transverse) magnetic field.
Protons orbiting all ten galaxies would have the highest energy and a relativistic mass as much as one hundred million times the mass of a proton at rest. This relativistic mass of orbiting protons provides the dark matter mass to galaxies, galaxy groups and clusters, without need for new dark matter particles. Relativistic protons hold their orbits firmly via the strong electromagnetic forces that are orders of magnitude greater than gravitational tidal forces.
In contrast, the galaxies, hydrogen, helium gas, and dust in a galaxy group are bound primarily by gravitational tidal forces to the galaxy group’s relativistic-proton dark matter mass, which typically is about ten times greater than the ordinary mass. Fritz Zwicky, then at the California Institute of Technology, discovered dark matter in 1933 when he was observing the velocities of the galaxies in the Colma galaxy supercluster and calculated there must be a large amount of unseen or missing mass (now called dark matter) to hold the high speed galaxies from being hurled into space. Colma is a small galaxy supercluster.
In this article, Drexler inverts the 1933 supercluster-to-dark matter discovery process. He utilizes the Larmor radius of the orbital path of the highest-energy dark-matter relativistic protons available to calculate the maximum possible diameter-like size for galaxy superclusters. He calculates a 430 million light-year maximum size, which is very compatible with the sizes of the four largest well-known galaxy superclusters.
A galaxy supercluster typically comprises more than a thousand galaxy groups. Let us consider the general structure of galaxy groups, clusters, and superclusters, which began to be understood through a September 2004 news release from NASA and Harvard, involving the Fornax cluster, entitled, “Motions in nearby galaxy cluster reveal presence of hidden superstructure.”
A key sentence in the 2004 news release reads, “Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect.” This astronomically established filamentary dark matter crisscrossing the cosmos and forming galaxy clusters where filaments collide, essentially describes Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter. Today this “hidden superstructure” of dark matter filaments is called the cosmic web.
Each supercluster, within 1 billion light years of Earth, links together an average of 2400 galaxy groups using “long large filaments of dark matter” to form multi-strand “necklaces” of bright galaxy groups on invisible filaments of high-velocity dark matter protons. Such galaxy groups hold about 12 large galaxies. The presence of the extragalactic magnetic field of about 1 x 10(-9) gauss may indicate that each of the multi-strands of dark matter filaments probably represents a different proton velocity/energy group and that the highest energy proton group would have the largest Larmor Radius and thus would be found at the outer periphery of the galaxy supercluster structure.
Drexler used the above descriptions and concepts as a basis to calculate the “maximum possible diameter-like size of a galaxy supercluster,” which is the largest contiguous cosmic structure of the universe. He started with the concept of long large filaments of relativistic-protons and their linked galaxy groups filling the universe’s largest galaxy supercluster with more than 2400 galaxy groups. The highest energy protons at its outer periphery would determine the superclusters’ maximum diameter-like size, which could be determined through a calculation of twice the Larmor Radius for these periphery protons.
The extragalactic magnetic field strength is already widely accepted. Therefore, the remaining task might have been to seek the highest-energy relativistic protons available to superclusters in such large quantities that they must have been derived from the big bang.
That was not necessary because Drexler already had found and interpreted such data in a cosmic-ray research paper, unrelated to dark matter.
The famous 1966 GZK cosmic-ray energy cutoff theory, for relativistic protons engaged in inelastic collisions with the CMB (cosmic microwave background), was confirmed recently at 6 x 10 (19) electron-volts by the High Resolution Fly’s Eye Collaboration, supported principally by the University of Utah.
Their paper, published in Physical Review Letters in March 2008, is entitled, “First Observation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin [GZK] Suppression.” This maximum GZK cosmic-ray cutoff energy should apply to all relativistic protons in the universe, including dark-matter protons, not just cosmic-ray protons.
Using this same maximum GZK cutoff energy for the enormous quantities of available dark-matter protons and the extragalactic magnetic field of 1 x 10(-9) gauss, Drexler arrived at a maximum diameter-like size for galaxy superclusters at 430 million light years. He did this by calculating the Larmor Radius according to the equation on page 47 of his May 2006 book entitled, “Comprehending And Decoding The Cosmos” and then doubling it to obtain the maximum diameter-like size for galaxy superclusters.
Is this estimate of 430 million light years for the maximum diameter-like size of galaxy superclusters logical and plausible? Are we convinced from the relativistic-proton dark matter theory that there is a maximum diameter-like size limit for galaxy superclusters? Does the 430 million light-year prediction add significant support to the relativistic-proton dark matter theory? Let us search the literature for related data about some of the largest galaxy superclusters, study what the data implies, and draw conclusions about the results and the applicability of the theory behind them. Begin with the following relevant data.
An excellent atlas of superclusters is entitled “The Universe within 1 billion Light Years – The Neighbouring Superclusters,” found at (http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/superc.html) . This atlas can be used to measure the diameter-like contiguous sizes of galaxy superclusters against the sizes/lengths reported in the literature. The diameter-like contiguous sizes of some of the largest galaxy superclusters in the universe are as follows, listed by galaxy supercluster name and approximate diameter-like contiguous size.
Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster, 410 million light years
Sculptor Supercluster, 250 million light years
Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, 210 million light years
Shapley Supercluster, 160 million light years
Bootes Supercluster, 140 million light years
Virgo Supercluster, 110 million light years (local to Earth)
Coma Supercluster, 20 million light years (discovery of dark matter)
There is considerable published evidence supporting the existence of Drexler’s relativistic-proton dark matter, upon which the 430 million light-year calculation relies. For example, the discoveries of the anti-gravity or repulsive-gravity dark energy phenomenon in 1998 and again recently by Harvard-Smithsonian, using a different astronomical technique, appear to support Drexler’s published dark matter/dark energy theory. See Ascribe Newswire dated March 18, 2009 entitled, “Drexler’s Dark Matter Probably Causes the Stunted Mass-Growth of Galaxy Clusters Observed by Harvard.”
Also see Drexler’s 2003 book, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy And The Sun,” his 2006 book, “Comprehending And Decoding The Cosmos” and his 2008 book, “Discovering Postmodern Cosmology.”
Furthermore, Drexler’s three books provide more than fifteen cosmic-phenomena examples that justify the reliance on his relativistic-proton dark matter. These works disclose and explain these “mysterious” cosmic phenomena that only can be explained in a logical and plausible manner by evoking the relativistic-proton dark matter. They include the source of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, the nature of the cosmic web, how the big bang satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics, how cosmic inflation’s hyper-growth of the universe started and stopped and why the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
Are there any doubts about the sentence herein, “This relativistic mass of orbiting protons provides the dark matter mass to galaxies, galaxy groups and clusters, without need for new dark matter particles”? If so, valuable comments on this subject can be found in Appendix I, “Some Relativity” in “Cosmic Bullets: High Energy Particles in Astrophysics” by Roger Clay and Bruce Dawson.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR OF THE THREE BOOKS: