The article “Modern Cosmology: Science or Folk Tale?” in the September-October issue of American Scientist magazine and the Oct. 23 AScribe Newswire release “British Professor Elegantly Questions Validity of Cold Dark Matter Hypothesis” point out that modern Big Bang cosmology based upon Cold Dark Matter relies upon too few astronomical observations and upon too many hypotheses to be considered “science.”
The problem with the 20-year-old Cold Dark Matter hypotheses is that if we attempt to add another astronomical observation to improve the net significance of the Big Bang cosmology results, we most probably would have to add another hypothesis to the list of Cold Dark Matter hypotheses for the group of them to be compatible with the new astronomical observation. Thus, there would be no improvement in net significance.
That is, the problem with modern Big Bang cosmology is not a shortage of available relevant astronomical observations, but that the Cold Dark Matter hypotheses cannot generally show compatibility with an added independent astronomical observation without adding another new hypothesis.
The three previous paragraphs are an attempt to describe the dark matter conundrum posed in “Modern Cosmology: Science or Folk Tale?” by Professor Michael J. Disney of Cardiff University. This response endeavors to provide a scientific solution to Disney’s dark matter conundrum, which appears to be fundamental to Big Bang cosmology.
Could two or three of the following 13 astronomical observations be used to improve the net significance of Big Bang cosmology theory by using the Cold Dark Matter hypotheses plus just one more hypothesis? Theoretically, that could improve the net significance of modern Big Bang cosmology if such a hypothesis could be found.
Thirteen Independent Astronomical Observations Related to Big Bang Cosmology:
1. Hydrogen and helium in a particle ratio of about 12:1 comprise over 99 percent of the mass of the universe.
2. Relativistic protons and relativistic helium nuclei, which are known to be common in the universe, are in a particle ratio of roughly about 10:1 near the Earth.
3. Dark matter represents about 83 percent of the mass of the universe.
4. Astronomical data indicate the dark-matter particle mass is at least 35 times greater than the mass of a proton at rest.
5. Dark matter in early epochs was concentrated in long, large, curved filaments, announced by NASA on September 8, 2004, which formed galaxy clusters where two dark matter filaments intersected.
6. The separation velocities between galaxy clusters began to accelerate about 6-7 billion years ago, whereas no acceleration of separation velocities between galaxies or between stars has been reported.
7. Strongly self-interacting dark matter particles are normally located in halos of dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies while weaker self-interacting dark matter particles are normally located within galaxy clusters, implying the existence of two types, forms, or modes of dark matter particles.
8. Starburst galaxies created by the merging of spiral galaxy clusters exhibit extremely high star formation rates.
9. The blue and blue-white stars, as young as one million years old, are located in the spiral arms of mature spiral galaxies, which also contain five-billion-year-old red stars in their nuclei.
10. The Big Bang, as a thermodynamic process, satisfied the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which requires that the total amount of disorder, or entropy, in the universe, always increase with time. Also, since the Big Bang represents the beginning of time for the universe its entropy should have been at its lowest level for all time.
11. The nuclei of starburst galaxies usually exhibit new blue star formation while spiral galaxies exhibit new blue star formation in their spiral arms.
12. Large and mature spiral galaxies were in existence less than 2.5 billion years after the Big Bang. 13. Authors of “Missing Mass in Collisional Debris from Galaxies” conclude, “It more likely indicates that a substantial amount of dark matter resides within the disks of spiral galaxies. The most natural candidate is molecular hydrogen in some hard-to-trace form.” (Science 25 May 2007 Vol.316, pp.1166- 1169)
Consider these 13 astronomical observations. Could two or three of them be selected and utilized to improve the net significance of modern Big Bang cosmology theory by using the Cold Dark Matter hypotheses plus just one more hypothesis? If the answer is yes, it would make a very interesting scientific paper.
On the other hand, most of the 13 astronomical observations can be used as a group or separately to improve the net significance of modern Big Bang cosmology, without adding another hypothesis. This can be done by utilizing the Relativistic-Proton dark matter, which is described as comprising galaxy orbiting relativistic protons accompanied by relativistic helium nuclei in a particle ratio in the range of about 10:1 to 12:1.
Drexler has written books published in December 2003 and in May 2006, scientific papers in April 2005 and February 2007 and about two dozen AScribe scientific news releases since June 2006 providing strong evidence that dark matter is comprised of galaxy orbiting relativistic protons accompanied by relativistic helium nuclei in a particle ratio in the range between 10:1 and 12:1.
Such fast, charged particles are common in the universe. When they bombard the Earth’s atmosphere, they are called cosmic rays, which were discovered in 1912 by Victor F. Hess, who won the 1936 Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery.
Drexler originated the five-year-old Relativistic-Proton dark matter theory and presented it to two astronomy/astrophysics professors at a University of California campus in April 2003. He then expanded his presentation to 108 slides and transformed it into a 156-page paperback book, “How Dark Matter Created Dark Energy and the Sun – An Astrophysics Detective Story,” which was published Dec. 15, 2003.
Drexler followed this with a 19-page scientific paper on April 22, 2005 posted on the physics website arXiv.org as e-Print No. astro-ph/0504512, a five-page scientific paper on February 15, 2007 as e-Print No physics/0702132, and a 295-page paperback book entitled “Comprehending and Decoding the Cosmos,” published May 2006.
The 2006 book discloses the surprising and significant roles and functions of dark matter in creating spiral galaxies, stars, starburst galaxies and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Thus, a fitting subtitle for the 2006 paperback book is, “Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Utilizing Dark Matter Relationism, Cosmology, and Astrophysics.” The book is now available in over 40 astronomy or
physics university and observatory libraries around the world.
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